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(Answer Only ONE Question From This Section)

(i) Land use legislation helps ensure that land resources are managed sustainably, preventing overexploitation and degradation of natural resources.
(ii) It allows the government to plan and regulate the growth of urban areas, ensuring orderly development and preventing haphazard expansion.
(iii) Land use regulations can protect ecologically sensitive areas, such as forests, wetlands, and wildlife habitats, safeguarding biodiversity and promoting environmental conservation.
(iv) The government can allocate specific areas for infrastructure development, such as roads, schools, hospitals, and industrial zones, ensuring efficient land utilization.
(v) Land use legislation helps resolve disputes over land ownership and usage, reducing conflicts between individuals, communities, and industries.
(vi) By promoting appropriate land use, the government can foster economic activities, encourage investment, and support sustainable agricultural and industrial development.

(i) NGOs provide training and workshops to beekeepers, farmers, and local communities, imparting knowledge on modern beekeeping practices, hive management, and sustainable honey production.
(ii) NGOs may supply beekeepers with necessary equipment, such as beehives, protective gear, smokers, and honey extraction tools, to enhance productivity and safety.
(iii) They conduct research on bee species, behavior, and honey production techniques, introducing innovative methods to increase honey yields and improve bee health.
(iv) They raise awareness about the importance of bees and pollinators in agriculture and ecosystem health, advocating for policies that support bee-friendly practices and environmental protection.
(v) They help beekeepers access markets for their honey and other bee-related products, connecting them with buyers and promoting fair trade practices.
(vi) They work towards preserving natural habitats and diverse plant species, which are crucial for bees' foraging and pollination activities, contributing to the overall health of the bee population.

(i) Tree pullers uproot trees with minimal disturbance to the surrounding soil, preserving the topsoil structure and preventing erosion.
(ii) Tree pullers allow selective clearing of unwanted trees while leaving desired vegetation intact, maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem balance.
(iii) Compared to bulldozers, tree pullers can be more cost-effective, especially in areas with valuable timber, as they uproot trees without damaging the valuable parts.
(iv) Tree pullers are considered more environmentally friendly because they reduce habitat destruction and can spare young trees, which are vital for forest regeneration.
(v) Tree pullers typically require less fuel than bulldozers, resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions and lower operational costs.
(vi) Due to the minimal soil disturbance, the land may recover more quickly after using a tree puller, allowing for faster reforestation or preparation for agricultural use.

(i) Accessibility
(ii) Water Supply
(iii) Topography and Drainage
(iv) Sunlight Exposure
(v) Wind Direction and Shelter
(vi) Proximity to Production Areas


(i) The use of science and technology in agriculture has led to the development of high-yielding and disease-resistant crop varieties that have significantly increased agricultural productivity.

(ii) Adoption of modern farm machinery and equipment has enhanced efficiency in farm operations, reducing the labor-intensive nature of agriculture and increasing productivity.

(iii) Science and technology have facilitated the implementation of efficient irrigation systems, enabling farmers to grow crops in regions with limited rainfall and ensuring a steady supply of water for agriculture.

(iv) Technological advancements in pest and disease control have allowed for better monitoring, early detection, and targeted treatment, reducing crop losses and ensuring higher yields.

(v) Science-based soil testing and fertilizer recommendations have improved soil fertility and nutrient management, leading to increased crop yields.

(vi) Technology has provided farmers with easier access to agricultural information, weather forecasts, market prices, and best practices, enabling them to make more informed decisions and optimize their farming practices.

(i) Limited Grazing Land: The availability of limited grazing land in Southern Nigeria restricts the capacity to raise large herds of cattle.

(ii) Land Use Conflicts: Competition for land resources and land use conflicts between farmers and herders often result in tensions and restrict cattle movement.

(iii) Climate and Environmental Factors: Southern Nigeria's tropical climate may not be suitable for some cattle breeds, leading to lower productivity.

(iv) Disease Outbreaks: Cattle in Southern Nigeria are vulnerable to various diseases, and inadequate veterinary services may lead to significant losses.

(v) Inadequate Infrastructure: Insufficient infrastructure, such as proper roads and transportation facilities, hinders the efficient movement and marketing of cattle.

(vi) Herdsmen-Farmer Clashes: Frequent clashes between herdsmen and farmers over resources and grazing land have adversely affected cattle production in some regions.

(i) Planning ensures the efficient allocation of resources such as land, labor, and capital, maximizing productivity and profitability.
(ii) Planning helps identify environmentally sensitive areas on the land, enabling the implementation of sustainable farming practices.
(iii) Through planning, the most suitable crops or livestock can be selected based on the soil type, climate, and market demand in the area.
(iv) Planning enables the design and implementation of appropriate irrigation systems, ensuring sufficient water supply for crops.
(v) By planning, farmers can implement preventive measures for pest and disease control, minimizing crop losses.
(vi) Planning allows farmers to anticipate potential risks and develop contingency plans to mitigate adverse effects from factors such as weather events, market fluctuations, or input shortages.

(i) Water Pumping with Windmills
(ii) Electricity Generation
(iii) Ventilation in Livestock Barns
(iv) Wind-Assisted Seed Dispersal
(v) Drying of Agricultural Products


(Answer Only ONE Question From This Section)

(i) Different crops take different nutrients from the soil.
(ii) Different crops take nutrients from different layers of the soil.
(iii) crops having the same diseases should not follow each other.
(iv) Crops having the same pest should not follow each other.
(v) Shallow-rooted crops follow deep-rooted crops.
(vi) A legume must always be included in the rotation.

Commensalism and Symbiosis:
In commensalism, one species benefits from the association, while the other is neither harmed nor benefited. In Symbiosis, the both species benefit from the relationship.

Predation and Parasitism:
In predation, the predator is very active and uses intense physical effort to catch prey WHILE in Parasitism, the parasite is generraly passive in its progression

(i) Rocks help to break up compacted soil, improving its structure and enhancing water and air penetration.
(ii) Some rocks, like volcanic rocks, gradually release essential minerals and nutrients into the soil as they weather, enriching the soil profile.
(iii) Large rocks or stone walls can be strategically placed to prevent soil erosion in sloping areas.
(iv) Rocks act as mulch, reducing water evaporation from the soil and helping to retain moisture during dry periods.
(v) Rocks can create small microclimates by absorbing and radiating heat, benefiting certain plants or wildlife.
(vi) Rocks provide shelter and habitat for beneficial insects and microorganisms that contribute to soil health and pest control.

(i) Irrigation ensures a consistent and adequate water supply, leading to improved crop growth and higher yields.
(ii) Irrigation allows farmers to control the timing and amount of water delivered to crops, optimizing growth and reducing water wastage.
(iii) During dry spells or droughts, irrigation helps maintain crop growth and prevents significant losses.
(iv) With irrigation, farmers can grow a wider range of crops and extend the growing season beyond rain-fed limitations.
(v) Irrigation makes previously unsuitable or arid land productive, expanding the agricultural land available for cultivation.
(vi) Irrigation can lead to a stable and predictable income for farmers since it reduces the dependence on rainfall and associated crop failures.


Soil pollution is the contamination of soil with harmful substances, chemicals, or pollutants, which adversely affect its quality and fertility, making it unsuitable for plant growth and posing risks to human health and the environment.

(i) Conversion of sewage to useful fertilizer
(ii) Conversion of chemical waste into harmless biodegradable substances
(iii) Wastewater Treatment
(iv) Implementing and enforcing strict environmental regulations
(v) Controlling the use of agrochemicals

(i) Collection and Preparation of Soil Sample
(ii) Determination of Soil Moisture Content:
(iii) Soil Particle Size Analysis
(iv) Soil Chemical Analysis


(i) Removes excess water from the soil, preventing waterlogging and improving aeration.
(ii) Reduces the risk of root diseases caused by excessive soil moisture.
(iii) Improves soil structure and promotes better root development.

(i) Potential soil erosion due to increased water flow on the surface.
(ii) Loss of nutrients and organic matter through water runoff.
(iii) Can alter natural hydrological patterns and affect aquatic ecosystems downstream.


Answer Only ONE Question From This Section)

The area of the farmland is 1,960cm²

1 mound = 2m²
But 1m = 100cm

2m = 200cm
2m² = 40,000cm

Number of mounds = 40,000/1,960

= 20 mounds

Total number of setts needed:

Seed rate is 5,000 setts/ha, which means 5,000 setts are needed for one hectare of land (1 hectare = 10,000 m²).

To calculate the total number of setts needed for the mounds:
Total setts needed = Number of mounds x Seed rate per mound.

Total setts needed = 20 mounds x 5,000 setts/mound
= 755,000 setts.

(i) Intercropping
(ii) Crop Rotation
(iii) Mixed Cropping

(i) Trees contribute organic matter to the soil through leaf litter, enhancing soil fertility and structure.
(ii) Trees provide shade to crops, protecting them from excessive heat and sunburn.
(iii) Trees act as windbreaks, reducing wind erosion and protecting soil from being carried away by strong winds.
(iv) Trees create a habitat for various wildlife and beneficial organisms, enhancing biodiversity on the farm.
(v) Trees help in nutrient cycling by absorbing and releasing nutrients through their roots and leaves, benefiting neighboring crops.

(i) Calapogonium
(ii) Centrasema
(iii) Pureria
(iv) Witchgrass
(v) Hairy Bittercress


(i) Mulching: Mulching is done in yam production to retain soil moisture, control weed growth, and regulate soil temperature, which ultimately promotes better root development and higher yields.

(ii) Staking: Staking yam plants is done to provide support for the climbing vines, preventing them from trailing on the ground, reducing the risk of damage, and making it easier to manage the crop.

(iii) Training of Vine: Training yam vines involves guiding and directing their growth to climb along support structures like stakes or trellises. This practice improves sunlight exposure, enhances aeration, and ensures efficient space utilization in the field, resulting in healthier and more productive yam plants.

(i) Elephant grass - Pennisetum purpureum
(ii) Carpet grass - Axonopus affinis
(iii) Stylo - Stylosanthes spp.
(iv) Puero - Pueraria phaseoloides

(i) Soil Improvement: Some weeds have deep roots that help break up compacted soil, improve soil structure, and enhance nutrient absorption.
(ii) Organic Matter Source: When managed properly, certain weeds can serve as green manure or compost material, adding organic matter to the soil.
(iii) Fodder for Animal: Some of the Weeds have good palatable taste.which make the a good fodder for farm animals
(iv) Erosion Control: In certain cases, weeds can act as ground cover, reducing soil erosion caused by wind and water runoff.

Area of the farmland:

Area (A) = Length (L) x Width (W).
Given that the length (L) = 30 m and width (W) = 60 m.
Area (A) = 30 m x 60 m = 1800m².

Plant population in the farmland:

Spacing of the vegetable is 30 cm by 30 cm.
To calculate the plant population, divide the total area by the area occupied by each plant (spacing).

Area occupied by each plant = 0.3 m x 0.3 m = 0.09 m².

Plant population = Total area of farmland / Area occupied by each plant.

Plant population = 1800 m² / 0.09 m² = 20,000 plants.

The plant population in the farmland is 20,000 plants.


(Answer Only ONE Question From This Section)

(i) Health and Vitality: Choose rabbits that are healthy, active, and free from genetic disorders or diseases.
(ii) Reproductive Performance: Select rabbits with a history of good reproductive performance, including high fertility and litter size.
(iii) Conformation and Size: Consider the conformation (body shape) and size of the rabbits, aiming for well-balanced and appropriate-sized individuals for the breed standard.
(iv) Temperament: Opt for rabbits with a calm and gentle temperament, as this can make handling and management easier.
(v) Genetic Background: Assess the genetic background and pedigree of the rabbits to ensure they have desirable traits and do not carry undesirable genetic defects.
(vi) Prolificacy: Rabbits selected should be highly prolific ie rabbits with the ability to give birth to many offsprings at a time

(i) Temperature Control
(ii) Humidity Control
(iii) Egg Turning
(iv) Adequate Ventilation
(v) Candling
(vi) Egg Positioning

(i) Environmental Temperature: Hot weather or high temperatures increase water loss through sweating and panting, leading to higher water intake.
(ii) Feed Type and Composition: The moisture content and composition of the feed influence the animal's water needs.
(iii) Physiological State: Pregnant, lactating, and growing animals generally have higher water requirements.
(iv) Activity Level: Animals with higher activity levels, such as working or exercising animals, may require more water to stay hydrated.
(v) Diet Composition: Diets high in salt or certain nutrients may increase water intake to maintain electrolyte balance.
(vi) Water Quality: Poor water quality or contaminated water sources may discourage animals from drinking, reducing water intake.

(i) Amylase
(ii) Protease
(iii) Lipase
(iv) Sucrase
(v) Maltase
(vi) Lactase


(i) Transport of Oxygen: Blood carries oxygen from the lungs or respiratory surfaces to all body tissues, ensuring cellular respiration and energy production.
(ii) Transport of Nutrients: Blood delivers nutrients (glucose, amino acids, fatty acids) absorbed from the digestive system to various tissues and organs for growth and maintenance.
(iii) Removal of Waste Products: Blood carries metabolic waste products (carbon dioxide, urea) to the excretory organs (lungs and kidneys) for elimination from the body.
(iv) Immune Response: Blood contains white blood cells and antibodies that defend the body against infections and diseases.
(v) Regulation of Body Temperature: Blood helps regulate body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat throughout the body.
(vi) Blood Clotting: Blood contains platelets and clotting factors that help prevent excessive bleeding and promote wound healing when injuries occur.

(i) Hides are used to produce leather, a valuable material widely used in the manufacturing of various products, including shoes, bags, belts, and furniture.
(ii) Collagen extracted from hides is used in the production of gelatin, which finds applications in the food industry for making gummy candies, desserts, and capsules.

(i) Eggs are a valuable source of high-quality protein, essential amino acids, vitamins (such as vitamin B12 and vitamin D), and minerals (like selenium).
(ii) Egg-based vaccines and certain medications, such as some flu vaccines and allergy treatments, are produced using egg components.

(i) Animal tails, particularly from cattle and horses, are used to make fly whisks, which are used to swat flies and other insects.
(ii) In some cultures, animal tails are used for decorative or ceremonial purposes, such as traditional clothing or rituals.


(i) Iodine:
-It is an essential component of thyroxine which is crucial for regulating metabolism
-It is vital for proper brain development, especially during pregnancy and infancy.


(ii) Magnesium
-It is involved in the activation of various enzymes essential for biochemical reactions in the body.
-It is required for muscle contraction and relaxation.

-Muscle Cramps

(iii) Calcium
(i) It is a major component of bones and teeth, providing strength and structure.
(ii) It plays a critical role in muscle contraction, including the heart muscle.



(Answer Only ONE Question From This Section)

To calculate the number of days it took for the work to be done in 2017:

In 2015, six labourers completed the work in ten days. Let's assume that the total work required to prepare the farmland is "W" units.

Work done in 2015 = W units
Number of labourers in 2015 = 6
Number of days in 2015 = 10

In 2017, only four labourers were available. Let's assume the number of days it took to complete the work in 2017 is "d" days.

Work done in 2017 = W units
Number of labourers in 2017 = 4
Number of days in 2017 = t (to be determined)

Now, we know that the amount of work done in both years is the same (W units). Therefore, we can set up the following equation based on the work equation:

Work done in 2015 = Work done in 2017

6 labourers x 10 days = 4 labourers x d days

Now, solve for "d":

6 x 10 = 4 x d

60 = 4d

d = 60 / 4

d = 15

Therefore, it took 15 days for the work to be done in 2017.

If 4 people worked together for 15 days, we can calculate the total work done in terms of man-days as:

Total work done = Number of people x Number of days

Total work done = 4 people x 15 days

Total work done = 60 man-days

So, if 4 people worked together for 15 days, the total work completed would be 60 man-days.

(i) Family Labor
(ii) Hired or paid labour

(i) Labour Attendance Record
(ii) Labour Wage and Payment Record
(iii) Work Done Record
(iv) Safety and Health Record

(i) Wholesalers
(ii) Retailers
(iii) producers
(iv) cooperative societies

(i) Limited access to modern equipment and resources in rural areas hinder exytension workers in promoting new agricultural technologies or practices
(ii) High level of illiteracy among farmers may slow down the rate of adoption of new innovations
(iii) Poor infrastructure, such as bad roads and limited transportation, can hinder extension workers' mobility and accessibility to remote rural communities.
(iv) Unfavourable attitude of rural farmers toward government programmes, makes adoption of new innovations difficult.
(v) Language barrier leads to improper dissemination of new innovations
(vi) Inadequate resources such as finance and materials tend to hinder his performance.


Scale of preference refers to a ranking or order of individuals' preferences for different goods and services. It represents the way people make choices based on their desires and needs, given their limited resources or income. In essence, individuals assign relative importance to various options and make decisions to maximize their utility or satisfaction.

To calculate the elasticity of demand, we use the formula:
Elasticity of demand = Percentage change in quantity demanded / Percentage change in price

Given data:
Quantity demanded in 2012 (Q1) = 59,800 grape fruits
Price in 2012 (P1) = N450 per basket

Quantity demanded in 2018 (Q2) = 28,500 grape fruits
Price in 2018 (P2) = N750 per basket

Now, calculate the percentage change in quantity demanded:
Percentage change in quantity demanded = ((Q2 - Q1) / Q1) x 100

Percentage change in quantity demanded = ((28,500 - 59,800) / 59,800) x 100

= -31,300/59,800 x 100
= -0.52 x 100
= -52
Percentage change in quantity demanded ≈ -52%

Next, calculate the percentage change in price:
Percentage change in price = ((P2 - P1) / P1) x 100
Percentage change in price = ((750 - 450) / 450) x 100

= 300/450 x 100
= 0.67 x 100
= 67
Percentage change in price = 67%

Now, calculate the elasticity of demand:
Elasticity of demand ≈ (-52% / 67%) = -0.76

The demand for grape fruits is inelastic. This is because the calculated elasticity of demand (-0.76) is less than 1.

(i) Price of Substitutes
(ii) Consumer Income
(iii) Consumer Preferences and Tastes

(i) Sales Record
(ii) Inventory Record

(i) Visual Learning: Demonstrations offer a visual learning experience, making it easier for the audience to understand complex concepts and techniques through practical examples.

(ii) Active Participation: Demonstrations encourage active participation, allowing the audience to engage directly in the learning process by observing and performing tasks.

(iii) Practical Skills Development: Participants can learn and practice specific skills in real-time, enhancing their competency and confidence in applying the knowledge in their own settings.

(iv) Better Retention: Visual and hands-on learning experiences are known to improve information retention, as participants can see and experience the subject matter firsthand.

(v) Problem-Solving Opportunities: Demonstrations provide opportunities for participants to observe problem-solving techniques and responses to challenges, which they can apply in similar situations.

(vi) Addressing Language Barriers: Demonstrations can transcend language barriers, as they rely more on visual cues and actions rather than verbal communication, making them suitable for diverse audiences.

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