Rocks are naturally occurring solid materials composed of minerals or mineral-like substances. They are formed through various geological processes such as cooling and solidification of molten materials (igneous rocks)rocks), or metamorphism of existing rocks (metamorphic rocks).
(i) Mechanically Formed Sedimentary Rock: These sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and consolidation of fragments of pre-existing rocks. The fragments, known as clasts, are transported by various agents such as water, wind, or ice, and then deposited in layers. Examples include sandstone, shale, and conglomerate.
(ii) Chemically Formed Sedimentary Rock: These sedimentary rocks are formed from the precipitation of minerals dissolved in water. When water evaporates or becomes oversaturated with dissolved minerals, these minerals can crystallize and form rocks. Examples of chemical rocks include limestone, dolomite, and rock salt.
(iii) Organically Formed Sedimentary Rock: These sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and compaction of organic remains, such as plants or animal fossils. Over time, the organic matter undergoes chemical and physical changes, resulting in the formation of organic rocks. Examples of organic rocks include coal, oil shale, and chalk.
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) Rocks like granite, limestone, and sandstone are widely used as building and construction materials.
(ii) Rocks such as bauxite, which is the primary source of aluminum, and hematite is used in iron production and for manufacturing processes.
(iii) Rocks like phosphate rock and limestone are used as fertilizers to enrich soil fertility and improve crop yields.
(iv) Precious stones and gemstones, such as diamonds, rubies, and emeralds, are used in jewelry and decorative items, adding value and aesthetic appeal.
(v) Rocks like particularly coal and uranium-bearing rocks, are important sources of energy.
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Changes in temperature: Climate change can result in increased temperatures, leading to heat stress in animals. This can negatively affect their health, reproduction, and productivity.
(ii) Changes in precipitation: Climate change can lead to alterations in rainfall patterns, resulting in droughts or heavy rainfall events. Both of these extremes can have significant impacts on animal husbandry, affecting the availability of water and forage for animals.
(iii) Increased disease risk: Climate change can create more favorable conditions for the spread of diseases in animals. Warmer temperatures can promote the survival and reproduction of disease-carrying vectors, such as ticks and mosquitoes, increasing the risk of diseases like Lyme disease or West Nile virus.
(iv) Changes in vegetation: Climate change can alter the composition and distribution of vegetation, which can impact animal grazing patterns and the availability of nutritious forage. This can result in reduced animal productivity and the need for supplemental feeding.
(v) Changes in water resources: Climate change can affect the availability and quality of water resources for animals. This can impact water availability for drinking and bathing, as well as the ability to irrigate pastures or crops for feed.
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Implementing sustainable and climate-smart management practices, such as rotational grazing and agroforestry, which can help sequester carbon, improve soil health, and conserve water resources.
(ii) Improving animal genetics and breeding programs to select for traits that are more resilient to climate change, such as heat tolerance and disease resistance.
(iii) Promoting efficient use of water resources through technologies like drip irrigation systems, water recycling, and rainwater harvesting.
(iv) Enhancing animal health management through the development and deployment of vaccines, biosecurity measures, and integrated pest management strategies to reduce the impact of climate-induced diseases.
(v) Implementing proper waste management systems to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from livestock waste, such as methane from manure.
(vi) Investing in research, innovation, and technology development to develop climate-resilient animal breeds, improve feed efficiency, and explore alternative feed sources that mitigate the environmental impact.
A spring is a natural source of water that emerges from the ground. It is formed when water from an underground aquifer (a layer of permeable rock, gravel, or sand that can hold and transmit water) finds a pathway to the surface. This can happen when the pressure in the aquifer pushes the water upward or when the water flows downhill along a slope. Springs can be found in various forms, such as a gentle trickle or a large gushing flow.
An artesian basin is a type of aquifer that is confined between layers of impermeable rock or clay. This geological formation traps water within the basin and creates a natural pressure system. When a well is drilled into an artesian basin, the water is forced to rise to the surface without the need for a pump. This occurs because the pressure in the aquifer is higher than the atmospheric pressure, allowing the water to flow upward.
(ii) Fracture Flow
(iv) Karst Topography