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Geography OBJ

Relief: The relief of the mapped area (Kashimbila N.W) can be described as follows
(i) A dissected plateaus is found of the north central area of the map which extended to the Central area.
(ii) The eastern, western and southern areas of the mapped area are mainly lowlands with the lowest height of 500m above see level

Drainage pattern: This can be described in the the following ways:
(i) The main river is the Katsina ala given and other minor ones that empty their water into it e;g mku,agbadi,apipo,abagu,kangi, etc . The direction of flow of river katsina - Ala is from north-west to south - east on the map .
(ii) The drainage pattern of the mapped area is dendritic.

Settlement: The settlement pattern of the mapped area is displeased on scalloped settlement. That is the building are far from each other with few social amenities.

The development of given Katsina - ala in these stages there are the youthful and matured and old age stages.
The youthful stage mark the source of river Katsina - ala at Bamenda highlands with a V-shape valley. The matured stage of the rivers is characterized by meanders and U-shape valley. The old stage leads to the mouth of given Katsina - ala (I;e when it empties its water to river Benue)

The reasons for the above cycles of development of given Katsina - ala are:
(i) Vertical erosion at the youthful stage
(ii) Lateral erosion and transportation at the matured stage
(iii) Deposition of materials at the old age stage.


(ii) Varying length of the Day and Night during the year
(i) Change in season
(iii) Change of the position of the midday sun and night during the year and in the different parts of the Earth
(iv) Change of the lunar eclipse and marking of the year.

(i) Both equinox and solstice depends on the altitude of the mid-day sun
(ii) Equinoxes and Solstices are both points in the orbit of the Earth around the sun, and are hence directly related to seasons.
(iii) Equinox occurs when the sun is vertically overhead at the equator. Eqiunox means equal day and night. Solstice occurs when the sun is overhead at the tropic of cancer.
(iv) We have two equinoxes in a year which are Spring equinox which occurs on March 20 and Autumnal equinox which occurs on September 22. There are two solstices in a year which are Winter solstice which occurs on December 22 and
Summer solstice which occurs on June 21

(i) Because the changes in hours of daylight and in temperature caused by revolution and tilt lead to the yearly change of seasons at middle latitudes. If Earth’s axis were perpendicular to its plane of orbit, seasons would not
occur. In addition, every place on Earth’s surface would experience 12 hours
of daylight and 12 hours of darkness every day. On the other hand, if Earth’s
axis were tilted more than 23.5°, each hemisphere would experience hotter
summers and colder winters.

(ii) Because On the first day of summer, every point on Earth within 23.5° of the
North Pole experiences 24 hours of daylight. The boundary of this region,
at latitude 66.5° N, is the Arctic Circle. On June 21 in the Southern
Hemisphere, every point south of the Antarctic Circle (latitude 66.5° S )
experiences 24 hours of darkness.

(iii) Because The hemisphere tilted toward the sun receives more direct sunlight and
thus has warmer temperatures and longer days. The hemisphere tilted away from the sun receives indirect sunlight. That hemisphere has cooler
temperatures and shorter days. In other words it changes the summer to be warm and bright and also changes it to be Winter.


Mode of formation: Metamorphic rocks are changed rock. The rock are formed from pre-existing igneous or sedimentary rocks which have been changed as a result of great heat and pressure. The original character and appearance may be greatly altered or change by such forces. Example of metamorphic rocks are slate, marble, quartzite, gneiss, schist and graphite.

(i) Some may occur in layers or strata
(ii) The rock may be hard or soft
(iii) They are crystalline in structure
(iv) They exist in different colours and texture
(v) They may contain fossils

(i)source of mineral : some rocks are source of minerals such as Gold, Diamond, limestone and petroleum which can be exported to provide foreign exchange for a country.

(ii) Rock as ornament: some beautiful rocks such as marble can be polished as ornaments for decorating floors, walls of buildings, churches and tombstones.

(iii) Raw materials for industries: some sedimentary rocks are used as raw materials in industries eg limestone is used for making cement;dolomite and marble are used for manufacturing of glasses and house paints.


Environmental conservation is defined as the planned, control exploitation or judicious use of natural resources to ensure their continuous availability and to preserve the quality or original nature of the environment.

(Choose Any four)
(i) Water
(ii) Forest
(iii) Soil
(iv) Air
(v) Wildlife

(i)Recycling: This is a process by which the life of resource is extended by means of recycling it or reusing it as an input or output. This is applicable only to on-energy resources, since the use of a material as an energy resource results in its useless dissipation into the atmosphere. In other words Reprocessing of unwanted products (e.g. newspapers, scrap metals, glass and sewage etc.).

(ii) Waste Reduction: This will automatically ensure lesser exploitation of resources. Waste reduction can be achieved by appropriately redesigning industrial processes, so that there will be technological efficiency in utilizing the resource and avoidance of waste to the minimum. In other words Further, the waste of one industry can be used as the raw material of another industry.

(iii) Material Substitution: The use of a material resource can be restricted by finding an alternative resource. The problem in this is that many materials have extensive uses and also joint uses. In other words the copper sheet can be substituted by aluminium, which at the same time would reduce demand for soldering agents made from and lead. Aluminium is being extensively substituted for tin, particularly, in the production of metal cans and containers.

(iv) Rewilding: Rewilding is a form of environmental conservation and ecological restoration that has significant potential to increase biodiversity, create self-sustainable environments and mitigate climate change. Rewilding aims to do this by reintroducing lost animal species to natural environments.


(i)Location: The spatial location of features are defined by coordinates in a specific reference system. In other words they are represented by points, lines or polygons and geometry of the three dimensional representation in space.

(ii) Data Quality: it refers to the credibility and accuracy of the data or more generally how good the data is. In other words quantitative quality relates to measurable components such as spatial accuracy. And the qualitative quality consists of those non-measured components, which usually relates to the entire data set and not to specific objects.

(iii) Generalization: relates to the level of scale and details associated with the object. Objects may be aggregated from larger to lower scale, while the opposite process is very limited. For example, if the countries layer can be aggregated into a states layer but opposite cannot be accomplished without external data.

(iv) Entity versus field based data: The world can be represented as a set of discrete entities such as forests, rivers, roads and buildings.This is refereed to as the Entity based approach. In other words the field-based approach represents the world as a continuous function with attributes that vary in space. Natural phenomena such as air pollution distribution and terrain may be the best represented using this approach.


(Choose Any two)
(i) It has the ability of improving the organizational integration.
(ii) GIS technology could also be integrated into framework of any enterprise information system.
(iii) GIS help in answering questions as well as solve problems through looking at the data in a way which is easily and quickly shared.

(Choose Any two)
(i) GIS technology might be considered as expensive software.
(ii) GIS layers might lead to some costly mistakes once the property agents are to interpret the GIS map
(iii) There might be failures in initiating or initiating additional effort in order to fully implement the GIS

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