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WAEC GCE 2023 - BIOLOGY  ANSWER
WAEC GCE 2023 - BIOLOGY  ANSWER


BIOLOGY PRACTICAL

(1)



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(2)


==================================

(3a)
A - Cactus
B - Waterleaf (Talinum triangulare)

(3b)
TABULATE:

HABITANT:
A - Desert
B - Banks of ponds

REASONS:
UNDER A:
(i) Leaves are reduced to spine to reduce to water loss
(ii) Thick stem to conserve water.

UNDER B:
(i) Shallow root
(ii) Has no elaborate water storage

(3c)
TABULATE:

A:
(i) Leaf of A are reduce to spine
(ii) Presence of sunken stomata
(iii) Absence of flowers
(iv) Absence of wide lamina

B:
(i) Leaves of B are wider not reduced to spines
(ii) Absence of sunken Stomata
(iii) Presence of Flowers
(iv) Presence of wide lamina on the leaves

(3di)
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i)Leaves are reduced to spines
(ii)Thick waxy cuticle is present
(iii)Thick stem is present

(3dii)
(i)Provides vitamins and minerals that boosts animal immunity
(ii)Provides antioxidant in animal diet and acts as mild laxatives
(iii)Provides fibre and energy to animals (carbohydrates)

(3e)
(i)Kingdom - Plantae
(ii)Division - Tracheophyta
(iii)Class - Angiosperm


(3fi)
Magnification = image length/ actual length

= 10cm/200cm
= 0.05

(3fii)
Liliopsida

(3fiii)
(i) Parallel-veined leaves
(ii) Scattered vascular bundles in the stem
(iii) Seeds with a single cotyledon

(3fiv)
Distichous




BIOLOGY THEORY & OBJ


BIOLOGY OBJ:
1-10: BADABABCCC
11-20: DCACCBDABA
21-30: CBAACADBCD
31-40: DACCABBDDA
41-50: ACBADACADC


(2a)
Tabular form

Adult X:
TWO FOOD NUTRIENTS
(i) vitamins
(ii) minerals

ONE END PRODUCT OF DIGESTION
(Pick Any ONE)
(i) Glucose
(ii) Amino acids

Adult Y:
TWO FOOD NUTRIENTS
(i) carbohydrates
(ii) protein

ONE END PRODUCT OF DIGESTION
(Pick Any ONE)
(i) Amino acids.
(ii) Glucose

(2bi)
Constipation is a condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements and difficulty passing stool.

(2bii)
Adult X, who had a meal of vegetables, is less likely to suffer from constipation.

(2biii)
(PICK ANY ONE)
(i) Vegetables are high in fiber, which adds bulk to the stool and helps in regular bowel movements.
(ii) Vegetables are also high in water content, which helps soften the stool and makes it easier to pass.
(iii) The presence of vitamins and minerals in vegetables helps promote a healthy digestive system and proper bowel function.

(2c)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) White bread provides a quick source of energy due to its high carbohydrate content.
(ii) The fried egg provides protein, which helps in muscle growth and repair.
(iii) The combination of white bread and fried egg can provide a balance of essential nutrients for the body.
(iv) The meal can be filling and satisfying, helping to reduce hunger and provide satiety.

(2di)
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) Inadequate intake of essential nutrients: People may not consume a balanced diet that provides all the necessary vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients.
(ii) Poor absorption of nutrients: Certain medical conditions or digestive disorders can impair the absorption of nutrients from food.
(iii) Increased nutrient needs: Certain life stages, such as pregnancy or lactation, as well as certain medical conditions, may require higher nutrient intake than usual, and if these needs are not met, malnutrition can occur.

(2dii)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Stunted growth: Malnutrition can lead to a lack of essential nutrients needed for proper growth and development, resulting in reduced height and weight for age.
(ii) Weak immune system: Malnutrition weakens the immune system, making children more susceptible to infections and diseases.
(iii) Delayed cognitive development: Inadequate nutrition can affect the brain's development, leading to learning difficulties and impaired cognitive function.
(iv) Lack of energy: Malnourished children may experience fatigue and lack of energy, affecting their overall physical and mental well-being.

=================================

(3)


==================================

(4ai)
Iron

(4aii)
Vitamin K

(4aiii)
Hemophilia

(4b)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Cucumber
(ii) Cabbage
(iii) Lettuce
(iv) Spinach
(v) Broccoli
(vi) Brussels sprouts

(4c)
(i) Blood typing and crossmatching
(ii) Compatibility testing for infectious diseases like hepatitis and HIV
(iii) Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to assess the patient's blood count

(4d)
(i) Blood group A and Blood group O
(ii) Blood group A and Blood group O

(4ei)
The genetic disorder named in Hemophilia is common in males because it is an X-linked recessive disorder. Males only have one X chromosome, so if they inherit the faulty gene on their X chromosome, they will manifest the disorder.

(4eii)
If she inherits an X chromosome with the hemophilia gene from both parents

(4eiii)
(i) Down syndrome
(ii) Cystic fibrosis.

=====================================

(5ai)
Phototropism

(5aii)
Phototropism is a biological process where plants grow towards a light source. In this case, the dark box with a hole allowed light to enter from one side only. The seedlings detected the light and responded by growing and bending towards the direction of the hole. This directional growth is a result of differential cell elongation on the side of the seedling away from the light, causing it to bend towards the light source.

(5aiii)
Without a hole, the seedlings would not receive directional light cues, and their growth would likely be more random and not oriented towards a specific direction. The seedlings might exhibit a more upright and uniform growth pattern.

(5b)
The balance of carbon dioxide (COâ‚‚) and oxygen (Oâ‚‚) in an ecosystem is maintained through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. During photosynthesis, plants and some microorganisms take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen, contributing to an increase in atmospheric oxygen. On the other hand, during respiration, organisms consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The overall balance between these processes helps to regulate the levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the ecosystem.

(5ci)
The sun

(5cii)
Without a supply of energy, the ecosystem would be unable to sustain life. Energy is necessary for all biological processes, including growth, reproduction, and maintaining metabolic activities. If there is no supply of energy, the ecosystem's organisms would not be able to function, leading to a collapse of the food chain and the ecosystem as a whole.

(5d)
(i) Lithosphere:
The lithosphere is the rigid outer layer of the Earth, consisting of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle.

(ii) Hydrosphere:
The hydrosphere refers to all the water on Earth, including oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, groundwater, and water vapor in the atmosphere.

(iii) Ecological Niche:
An ecological niche is the role and position of a species within an ecosystem, including its interactions with the biotic and abiotic factors. It encompasses how a species obtains and uses resources and how it contributes to the structure and function of the ecosystem.

(5e)
(i) Interspecific competition is the competition for resources (such as food, water, and space) between different species in a community.

(ii) The likely reasons for the death of seedlings could include overcrowding, competition for nutrients, water, and sunlight among the maize plants. In a small piece of land, resources may be limited, leading to stress on the plants and increased susceptibility to diseases and pests. The lack of sufficient space for root expansion and the shading effect from nearby plants can also contribute to the mortality of seedlings.




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