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(Answer Only TWO Question From This Section)

(i) Resources: Lack of human and material resources may put restraints on the exercise of state authority.

(ii) Pressure group activity: Pressure groups and certain individuals need to be consulted before the enactment and implementation of laws in the state without which they can influence the public for non- compliance.

(iii)The constitution: The constitution formally creates the state and defines the various powers to be exercised as well as their limitations.

(iv)The electorate: The electorates can check the excesses of the government through elections.

(v) International laws and membership of international organisations: States accept limitation on their sovereignty when they become members of international organisations like the U.N.O, O.A.U., ECOWAS as they have to comply with the laws and resolutions of these organisations.

(vi) Public opinion: International and local public opinions may prevent or control a country or state from taking an action, e.g. fear of sanctions and embargoes.

(vii)Customs and traditions: Customs and traditions of the people are taken into consideration when making law and this affects the sovereignty of the state.

(viii)Coup d'etat: This may erode popular sovereignty.

(ix)Types of governmental power: Sovereignty is better exercised under a unitary government than in federal and confederal systems.


An electoral commission is defined as a body responsible for organizing and conduction of elections in a political system.

(i) Conduct of election: It is involved in the conduct, organisation and administration of elections in a country.

(ii) Registration of voters: The electoral commission is responsible for the registration of eligible voters for any election. 3. Division of a country into constituencies

(iv)Type of voting: The electoral commission decides the type of voting system to be adopted.

(v) Provision of electoral materials: It provides ballot boxes, ink, papers and other needed election materials.

(vi) Registration of political parties; It has the power to screen and register political parties for elections.

(vii) Display of voters' register: It displays voters' register after registration.

(viii) Revision of voters' list: This is also one of the functions of the commission

(ix) Appointment and training of electoral officials: The commission is also mandated to recruit and train electoral officials for elections.


(Answer Only THREE Question From This Section)

(i) Agricultural Development: NEPAD has made some progress in the area of agriculture. Through the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), NEPAD is slowly laying the foundation for higher agricultural productivity and output in Africa. As a result of CAADP, African countries are paying more attention to the agriculture sector.

(ii) It has put Africa on the global agenda and has also galvanized international support for the region: As a result of the adoption of NEPAD, the Group of Eight (G8) launched the Africa Action Plan in June 2002 and made commitments to support the implementation of NEPAD. Since then, there has been a significant increase in official development assistance (ODA) to Africa.

(iii) Progress in economic and political governance: NEPAD has also made some progress in the area of economic and political
governance. The economic environment in several countries in the region has improved, particularly in areas such as tax reform, access to credit, and enforcement of contracts. Furthermore, in the area of political governance, significant progress has been made, particularly on electoral issues and processes.

(iv) It has compelled the United Nations to take actions to enhance coherence in the provision of support to Africa: Since the endorsement of NEPAD in United Nations General Assembly on 4th November 2002, NEPAD has become widely accepted as the framework and mechanism through which the United Nations and the international community should support Africa’s development efforts.

(v) Strengthening Pharmaceutical innovation in Africa: In partnership with COHRED and George Institute, NEPAD Agency played a key role in the development and publication of the “Strengthening Pharmaceutical Innovation in Africa” Report designed to support AU Member States on Pharmaceutical Innovation in Africa.

(vi) African Union (AU) Model Law: The NEPAD Agency, through the AMRH programme, facilitated the development of the AU Model Law on Medical Products Regulation. The AU Model Law was endorsed by African Heads of State and Government at the January 2016 AU Summit in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The AU Model Law contributes towards harmonizing medicines regulatory systems and providing an enabling environment for the development and scale-up of health technologies in Africa.


(i) Differences in ethnic Composition: There are differences in traditions, culture, language, religion, etc. These differences exist among the different ethnic groups, hence the adoption of federalism in Nigeria.

(ii) Fear of ethnic domination: The fear of one major ethnic group dominating others may give rise to the adoption of federalism.

(iii) Size of Country: Nigeria has a large population and with a wide geographical expression, federalism is a better option.

(iv) Minority interest: Adoption of federalism in Nigeria, is one way of protecting the interests of the minority. Nigeria has both the majority and minority tribes and other diversified interests and groups.

(v) Geographical Contiguity: The geographical nearness of the people in the country gave rise to the adoption of federalism.

(vi) Even development: Federalism promotes quick and even development and this is one of the reasons why Nigeria embraced it.

(vii) For security purposes: Different sovereign states may decide to come together by adopting federalism and this is done to have a secured sovereign state, for example, U.S. A., Switzerland, etc.

(viii) To generate Employment opportunities: Federal system makes for duplication of functions, thereby generating employment opportunities in the process.

(ix) Desire for a Union: There was the desire among the various groups to come together and form a union. This will remove all fears of external aggression.

(x) To bring government nearer to the people: Federalism may give rise to the creation of other units of government e.g states, local governments etc. This will help to bring the government nearer to the people.


(i) Personality clash: One of the factors which contributed to the Action Group crisis of 1962 was the personality clash between Chief Obafemi Awolowo the party Leader and Chief Akintola his deputy party leader. Chief Awolowo saw chief Akintola as over ambitious and egocentric individual that wanted to supplant him as the leader of the party. This made Chief Awolowo to view his deputy, Chief Akintola as a traitor and perfidy personified who must be removed.

(ii) Power struggle: The allegation that Chief Awolowo who was the leader of opposition in the Federal House of Representatives wanted to be consulted as the party leader before any important policy decisions were to be taken by western regional government headed by Chief Akintola was another major cause of the crisis in Action Group. Chief Akintola and other officials of western regional government saw chief Awolowo as a political usurper.

(iii) Introduction of a new ideology into the party - democratic socialism: This innovation brought the party into two opposing camps. Democratic socialism demands mixed socialist economy, having the support of the radical group in the party. The conservatives were opposed to this ideology because it was in conflict with their interests which covered commercial and business sectors.

(iv) Faction in decisions: The most conflicting issue that tore members of the Action Group into shreds was the question of whether or not the party should participate in the formation of the National Government at the federal level. The party was divided into two main factions. One was led by Chief Awolowo while others was headed by Chief Akintola. Chief Akintola’s group supported co-operation with NPC – controlled federal government, but the Chief Awolowo group did not want to have anything to do with NPC, instead preferred a progressive alliance with the NCNC in order to root out NPC from power.

(v) Decision to abolish the post of a Deputy leader for the party, remove Chief Akintola as the premier of western Region and also dismiss Chief Ayo Rosiji, as the secretary of the party at the federal level. Chief S.L. Akintola, was found guilty of bad-administration, anti-party activities, disloyalty and gross indiscipline and therefore should be removed. The majority of party members in the Western Regional House of Assembly passed a vote of no confidence in the premier and presented same to the Governor, Sir Adesoji Aderemi. The Governor then had to remove Chief Akintola as the premier and he appointed Alhaji D. S. Adegbenro, the parliamentary leader in the House as the new premier. The Regional House met to ratify the decision of the executive, but turmoil broke out resulting in a free-for-all fight. It was alleged that supporters of Akintola started the fight; this was a strategy to prevent the normal conduct of the House affairs. The Police was called in and with teargas dispersed the members of the House.

(vi) The reinstatement of Chief Akintola as the Premier led to his formation of a new party called United Progressive Party (UPP) and with an alliance with some members of NCNC, formed a coalition government in the region. UPP and NCNC later became Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP). Justice G.B.A. Coker was appointed to head a commission of inquiry to investigate allegations of maladministration and misappropriation of public funds in some public corporations in the Region and at the end of the investigation, Chief Akintola, was not found guilty of such. The excising of Mid-west Region from the Western Region was another factor that led to the crises in Action Group. It should be of note that the A.G. never supported this action.
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