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(i) Business owners
(ii) Investors
(iii) Lenders
(iv) Government authorities
(v) Employees
(vi) Auditors
(vii) Creditors
(viii) Tax authorities
(ix) Financial analysts
(x) Suppliers

(i) Bookkeeping is more focused on collecting, storing, and organizing financial transactions while accounting is analyzing, interpreting, and communicating financial information.
(ii) Bookkeeping involves recording financial transactions in a journal, while accounting involves summarizing, analyzing, and reporting this financial information in reports.
(iii) Bookkeepers work with smaller details while accountants work with the bigger picture.
(iv) Bookkeepers use manual or computerized systems to record information, whereas accountants use accounting principles in order to interpret the information.
(v) Bookkeepers are mainly concerned with recording data while accountants interpret and analyze the data in order to make informed decisions.

(i) Normal Wear and Tear
(ii) Obsolescence
(iii) Physical Deterioration
(iv) Human Error
(v) Market Conditions


(i) Both are used to record cash transactions.
(ii) Both provide a summary of cash inflows and outflows.
(iii) Both are maintained on a daily basis.
(iv) Both use debit and credit entries to indicate amounts being received or paid out.
(v) Both are reconciled with the bank statement monthly.
(vi) Both track cash expenditures.

Three Column Cashbooks record separate columns for transactions related to sales, purchases and other expenses, while Two Column Cashbooks record separate columns for transactions related to income and expenditure.

(i) Donations
(ii) Grants
(iii) Fundraising Events
(iv) Sponsorships
(v) Corporate Gifts
(vi) Grants from Government Agencies
(vii) Endowments
(viii) Investment Returns
(ix) Membership Fees
(x) Merchandise Sales

(i) Purchases Book
(ii) Sales Book
(iii) Returns Inwards Book
(iv) Returns Outwards Book
(v) Bills Receivable Book
(vi) Bills Payable Book
(vii) Petty Cash Book
(viii) Journal Proper.


Bad debit ; is debt that cannot be collected. It is a part of operating a business if that company allows customers to use credit for purchases.

Gross profit ; is the profit a company makes after deducting the costs associated with making and selling its products, or the costs associated with providing its services.

Discount Allowed ; is a reduction in the price of goods or services allowed by a seller to a buyer and is an expense for the seller. However, the discount received is the concession in the price received by the buyer of the goods and services from the seller and is an income for the buyer.

Discount Received ; is recorded as a reduction to Accounts Receivable on a company's balance sheet. For example, when a seller permits a discount, the drop in revenues is noted and is often credited to a contra revenue account.

Credit note ; is a financial document issued by supplier companies to reduce the amount owed to them by the buyers. It helps firms maintain a proper paper trail and is issued when the goods are returned.



Tourist attractions are places, sites, events, activities, or features that are specifically designed or naturally occurring and have the appeal to attract tourists and travelers. These attractions can vary widely and include natural landscapes, historical sites, cultural monuments, entertainment venues, and more.

(i)Natural Attractions: These are natural landscapes, features, and environments that draw tourists due to their beauty, uniqueness, and recreational opportunities. Examples include beaches, mountains, waterfalls, national parks, and wildlife reserves.

(ii)Cultural Attractions: Cultural attractions showcase the heritage, history, and traditions of a region. They can include museums, historical sites, religious monuments, art galleries, and traditional festivals.

(iii)Historical Sites: Historical attractions encompass landmarks and sites that hold historical significance, such as ancient ruins, castles, forts, battlefields, and preserved architecture from different eras.

(iv)Architectural Attractions: These are buildings and structures that captivate tourists with their architectural design, innovation, and cultural symbolism. Examples include iconic skyscrapers, cathedrals, temples, and palaces.

(v)Theme Parks: Theme parks offer a range of entertainment experiences, rides, and attractions centered around a specific theme. They attract visitors of all ages seeking adventure, fun, and escapism

(vi) Adventure and Sports Attractions: These cater to thrill-seekers and sports enthusiasts by offering activities like skiing, scuba diving, zip-lining, bungee jumping, and other outdoor adventures.

Heritage refers to the collective inheritance of cultural, historical, and natural assets that are passed down from one generation to the next. It encompasses tangible and intangible elements that have significance and value to a particular community, society, or even humanity as a whole.


(i)Historical Significance: Heritage items possess historical importance, representing events, periods, or aspects of the past.
(ii)Cultural Value: Heritage reflects the cultural identity of a group of people
(iii)Connection to the Past: Heritage items provide a tangible or intangible link to previous generations.
(iv)Continuity and Transmission: Heritage is passed down from generation to generation, preserving traditions, knowledge etc
(v)Emotional Attachment: Heritage often evokes emotional responses and a sense of belonging among individuals who share a common heritage.


(i) Infrastructure Development: The committee can invest in improving infrastructure such as roads, transportation systems, and utilities to enhance accessibility and convenience for tourists. This could include building or upgrading airports, bus terminals, and parking facilities to accommodate higher visitor numbers.

(ii) Cultural and Heritage Promotion: Highlighting the unique cultural and heritage assets of the area can attract tourists interested in experiencing local traditions, festivals, art, and history. The committee can organize cultural events, workshops, and tours that showcase the area's identity, leading to a more authentic and enriching experience for visitors.

(iii) Eco-tourism and Natural Resources: If the area is blessed with natural beauty, biodiversity, and ecotourism potential, the committee can develop sustainable tourism practices that allow tourists to enjoy the environment without harming it. This might involve creating hiking trails, wildlife observation points, and eco-friendly accommodations while implementing conservation measures to preserve the natural resources.

(i) Regulation and Licensing: Public agencies ensure that tourism-related businesses adhere to regulations and standards, maintaining the safety and quality of services offered to tourists.

(ii) Infrastructure Development: Public agencies are responsible for developing and maintaining essential infrastructure such as roads, airports, public transportation systems, and sanitation facilities that are crucial for tourism development.

(iii) Destination Marketing: Public agencies often engage in destination marketing campaigns to promote the region's attractions, events, and unique features.

(iv) Tourism Research and Planning: Public agencies conduct research to gather data on tourism trends, visitor preferences, and economic impacts.

(v) Environmental Conservation: Many public agencies work to preserve the natural and cultural resources that attract tourists in the first place.

(i) Funding: Governments can allocate funds to support public agencies in their efforts to develop tourism infrastructure, marketing campaigns, and sustainable practices.

(ii) Capacity Building: Offering training and capacity-building programs to public agency staff can enhance their skills in areas like destination management, marketing, and sustainable tourism practices.

(iii) Policy and Regulation: Governments can collaborate with public agencies to develop and enforce policies and regulations that ensure responsible and sustainable tourism development.

(iv) Research and Data Collection: Governments can support data collection and research initiatives that provide insights into visitor preferences, economic impacts, and environmental sustainability.

(v) Public-Private Partnerships: Governments can facilitate partnerships between public agencies and private businesses to jointly invest in and develop tourism infrastructure and services.

(vi) Community Engagement: Governments can encourage public agencies to involve local communities in the decision-making process for tourism development, ensuring that the benefits of tourism are spread equitably and that community concerns are addressed.


(i) Enhanced customer experience: Support services play a crucial role in ensuring a positive customer experience in the tourism industry. Services such as transportation accommodation tour guides and customer service specialists contribute to making the customers' journey smooth and enjoyable.

(ii) Increased operational efficiency: Support services help in improving the overall efficiency of a tourism business. Services like supply chain management IT support and maintenance services ensure that the business functions smoothly and without any disruptions.

(iii) Cost savings: By outsourcing certain support services tourism businesses can save costs. For example, instead of maintaining their transportation fleet, they can collaborate with a local transportation service provider saving costs on maintenance and fleet management.

(iv) Focus on core competencies: Support services allow tourism businesses to focus on their core competencies such as offering unique travel experiences or creating tailored packages. By outsourcing support services businesses can allocate their resources and attention to what they do best while relying on experts to handle other aspects of the business.

(i) Service delivery refers to the actual provision of tourism services to customers whereas support services refer to the ancillary services that enable the smooth functioning of the tourism business.

(ii) Service delivery is customer-facing directly interacting with customers and providing the services they have paid for. While support services are behind the scenes ensuring that the necessary infrastructure and resources are available to deliver quality services.

(iii) Service delivery focuses on meeting customer expectations and delivering a satisfactory experience. Support services while indirectly contributing to customer satisfaction are primarily focused on supporting the operations of the tourism business and ensuring its overall efficiency.

(i) Employment generation: Cottage industries provide employment opportunities, especially in rural areas where job opportunities may be limited. The establishment of small-scale industries provides income opportunities for local communities thereby reducing unemployment rates.

(ii) Rural development: Cottage industries can contribute to the development of rural areas by creating economic activity and improving the living standards of the local population. They help in the diversification of the local economy and reduce dependency on agriculture.

(iii) Poverty reduction: Cottage industries can help alleviate poverty by providing income-generating activities for the poor. They offer opportunities for individuals to develop skills and generate income leading to improved living conditions and reduced poverty levels.

(iv) Cultural preservation: Cottage industries often focus on traditional handicrafts and artisanal products preserving the cultural heritage of a region. These industries promote cultural tourism and contribute to the preservation of traditional skills and craftsmanship.

(v) Economic resilience: Cottage industries can contribute to the overall economic resilience of a country. They provide a diverse range of products and services reducing reliance on a single sector and promoting economic stability.


Hospitality: Hospitality refers to the friendly and generous reception and entertainment of guests or strangers. It involves providing a pleasant and accommodating environment, ensuring the comfort and satisfaction of visitors, and going above and beyond to create a positive experience.

Tourism: Tourism is the practice of traveling for recreation, leisure, religious, family or business purposes, usually for a limited period of time. It involves visiting places of interest outside one’s usual environment.

Leisure: Leisure refers to the time spent away from work, school, and other obligations. It is used to relax, pursue hobbies, meet with friends and family, and generally enjoy life.

(i) It provides employment opportunities: Catering is an important industry and it offers a large number of career opportunities.
(ii) It enhances social cohesion: Catering services can bring communities together and help to strengthen relationships.
(iii) It serves as a networking opportunity: Events that involve catering services are often a great place to make connections and network with different people.
(iv) It helps in promoting local produce: Catering services can promote locally produced foods, boosting the local economy.
(v) Food safety and hygiene: Professional caterers follow strict hygiene standards when preparing and storing food. This ensures that the food is safe for consumption and free from bacteria and contaminants.
(vi) It provides convenience: Catering services offer convenience, as they take care of the food preparation and delivery, making it easier for people to host events.
(vii) It adds to the atmosphere: Catering services can add to the atmosphere and ambience of an event by providing creative and interesting dishes.


(i) Consistency: Dough is typically thicker and more elastic in texture, while batter is thin and pourable.
(ii) Ingredients: Dough is primarily made from flour, water, and fat, while batter is made of flour, liquid, and other ingredients like sugar, baking powder, and eggs.
(iii) Leavening agent: Dough is typically made without any type of leavening agent, while most batters contain baking powder or baking soda to help them rise.
(iv) Use: dough is used mainly for breads, pizza crusts, pies, cookies, and similar products. While Batter is used mainly for cakes, muffins, pancakes, waffles, and other similar items
(v) Resting time: Dough usually needs to rest after being mixed, while batters can be used immediately.
(vi) Kneading: Dough is usually kneaded to increase its elasticity, while batter is whisked or stirred.

(i) Fire Hose
(ii) Fire Extinguishers
(iii) Fire Truck
(iv) Axes
(v) Ladder
(vi) Thermal Imagery Cameras

(i) Dishwasher
(ii) Electric Kettle
(iii) Food Processor
(iv) Blender
(v) Stand Mixer


Bain-marie: This is a cooking technique and a utensil used for gentle and even heating. It involves placing a container with food in a larger, shallow pan of water, which is then heated indirectly. This method is commonly used to melt chocolate, butter or cheese, and also to cook custards, sauces and delicate dishes.

La Croquette: This is a lightly-breaded, deep-fried food made from mashed potatoes, vegetables, meat and fish, or a combination thereof. They are often served as accompaniments to main courses or as snacks.

Concassée: This cooking technique involves finely chopping a vegetable, such as an onion, into small cubes. It is often used to prepare aromatic bases for soups and sauces.

La Casserole: This is a deep, round, oven-safe dish with a lid. It is used for stews, braises and casseroles that require long, slow cooking over low heat.

(i) Classic Mixing Method: In this method, all the ingredients (flour, sugar, butter, eggs, and leavening agent) are combined together in a mixing bowl and mixed until a smooth batter is formed. This batter is then poured into a pre-greased and floured baking pan.
(ii) The Creaming Method: This method involves beating softened butter and sugar with an electric mixer until the mixture is light and fluffy. Separately, eggs and vanilla are beaten together and added to the butter-sugar mixture. Flour is then added, after which the whole batter is poured into a prepared baking tray.
(iii) One-Step Mix Method: This is a quick method for making cakes. All ingredients (flour, sugar, butter, eggs and leavening agent) are combined together in a bowl and mixed until a smooth batter is formed. This batter is then poured into a pre-greased and floured baking pan.
(iv) Sponge Cake Method: This method involves beating egg whites and sugar until stiff peaks form. The egg yolks are then beaten until pale and creamy and added to the egg whites. Cake flour and leavening agents are then gently folded into the mixture and poured into a prepared baking pan.


menu card is a printed or digital document that lists the available food and drink items at a restaurant, café, or other dining establishment. It typically includes descriptions, prices, and sometimes images of the items being offered to help customers make their selections.


(i)It restricts the number of choices available to customers, simplifying the ordering process and allowing the kitchen to prepare a set number of dishes efficiently.

(ii) it allows customers to enjoy a full meal at a relatively lower cost compared to ordering each course separately.

(iii)Table d'hôte menus ensure consistency in the dining experience since everyone at the table receives the same courses.

(iv)The menu allows the chef to showcase their culinary skills by curating a well-balanced and cohesive set of dishes that complement each other in terms of flavors, textures, and presentation.

(v)The table d'hôte menu offers a predetermined set of courses for a fixed price, making the ordering process simpler and quicker for both customers and staff.


(i)Hors d'oeuvre (Appetizer)
(ii)Soup (Potage)
(iii)Fish Course (Poisson)
(iv)Main Course (Viande)
(v)Salad (Salade)
(vi)Dessert (Dessert)



Data model is a conceptual representation of data and its relationships typically used in database management systems. It defines how data is organized stored and accessed within a system.

(i) In spreadsheet packages a worksheet is a grid of cells where data can be entered manipulated and organized While A workbook is a file that contains multiple worksheets. It is the entire collection of worksheets charts and other data within a spreadsheet package.

(ii) A cell is a single unit within a worksheet grid that is identified by its row and column. Each cell can contain data such as numbers text or formulas While Active cell refers to the currently selected cell within a worksheet. It is highlighted and ready to receive data or perform operations.

(i) Bookmark: In the context of websites a bookmark refers to saving the URL of a web page for easy access and future reference. It allows users to quickly revisit web pages without having to search for them again. Bookmarks are usually stored within the browser or bookmark manager and can be categorized and organized.

(ii) Bitmap: Bitmap is a file format used to store images in a pixel-by-pixel manner. It represents an image as a grid of individual pixels where each pixel is assigned a specific color or shade. Bitmap images are commonly used for photographs and graphics and are associated with file extensions such as .bmp or .png. They can be edited pixel-by-pixel but their size can be larger compared to other image formats.


Primary key is a unique identifier for each record in a database table. It is used to uniquely identify each record and ensure that there are no duplicate records within the table.

(i) Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that provides internet access to individuals businesses and organizations. They typically offer various types of internet connections such as dial-up DSL cable and fiber optic and also may offer additional services like email accounts web hosting and virtual private networks (VPNs).

(ii) Network administrator is an IT professional responsible for managing and maintaining computer networks within an organization. They are responsible for tasks such as setting up and configuring network hardware managing network security monitoring network performance troubleshooting network issues and ensuring that network resources are available to users.

(i) Ctrl + A is a keyboard combination that selects all the content in a document or a specific area where cursor is placed.

(ii) Alt + Shift + tab is a keyboard combination that allows you to switch between opened windows or applications in reverse order.

(iii) Alt + F4 is a keyboard combination that closes the active window or quits the current program.

(iv) Shift + E is not a specific keyboard combination with a predefined function in MS-Word.


(i) Parallel database: A parallel database is a type of database management system that is designed to run on parallel computing platforms. It divides the data and computing tasks across multiple processors allowing for faster processing and enhanced scalability.

(ii) Distributed database: A distributed database is a database that is spread across multiple computers or servers connected through a network. Each computer in the network stores and manages a portion of the data providing improved performance reliability and fault tolerance.

(i) Microsoft PowerPoint
(ii)Google Slides

(i) Data storage and retrieval: A DBMS allows for efficient storage and retrieval of large amounts of structured data.
(ii) Data organization and management: A DBMS allows for the organization and management of data through the use of tables relationships and query languages.
(iii) Data security and access control: A DBMS provides mechanisms for securing the data and controlling access to it ensuring that only authorized users can view or modify the data.

(i) Keyboard
(ii) Mouse
(iii) Scanner
(iv) Microphone


An operating system is a software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides services for computer programs. It acts as an intermediary between the computer hardware and user applications.

(i)Microsoft Office Suite
(ii) Adobe Creative Cloud
(iii) Google G Suite
(iv) AutoCAD


=Advantages of distributed database=
(i) A distributed database can distribute the workload across multiple servers resulting in faster processing times and the ability to handle large amounts of data.
(ii) If one server fails the data can still be accessed from other servers ensuring high availability and data redundancy.

=Disadvantages of distributed database=
(i) Managing a distributed database can be complex due to the need for synchronization and consistency across multiple servers.
(ii) Setting up and maintaining a distributed database can be more expensive than a centralized database due to the need for additional hardware and network infrastructure.

(i) Worms: Worms are self-replicating malware that spread across networks without the need for human interaction. They can cause significant damage by consuming network bandwidth or exploiting vulnerabilities in computer systems.
(ii) Trojan Horses: Trojan horses are malware disguised as legitimate software or files. They are often used to gain unauthorized access to a computer system or to steal sensitive information. Unlike viruses Trojan horses do not self-replicate.


Computer ethics refers to the moral principles and guidelines that govern the use of computers and technology. It involves understanding and applying ethical principles to issues that arise in computer systems and technology.

(i) Misinformation and Fake News: The internet enables the rapid spread of misinformation, fake news, and propaganda, which can lead to misunderstandings, social unrest, and even public health risks.
(ii) Cybersecurity Threats: The internet is susceptible to various cyber threats, including hacking, viruses, malware, and phishing attacks, which can compromise personal information, sensitive data, and even critical infrastructure.

A primary key of the table and provides a unique identifier for each record. It is used to uniquely identify and access individual records in a table. On the other hand a secondary index is based on a non-primary key attribute of the table and helps in improving the efficiency of data retrieval operations other than the primary key. It allows for faster searches on frequently accessed attributes other than the primary key.


Normal form refers to a standard format or arrangement that data or information should adhere to. In relation to databases normal form refers to a set of rules that define how the attributes or columns of a database table should be structured to eliminate redundancy and ensure data integrity.

(i) Adobe
(ii) CorelDRAW
(iii) GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program)
(iv) Canva

(i) Communication: ICT facilitates communication through various means such as emails instant messaging video conferencing and social media platforms. People can easily stay connected share information and collaborate irrespective of geographical boundaries.
(ii) Information access and research: ICT provides access to vast amounts of information through the internet. It allows individuals to search gather and analyze data quickly and efficiently. It also enables research and learning opportunities with resources like online courses e-books and educational websites.

(i) Structure: A file is a single unit used to store information or data while a folder is a container used to organize and store multiple files.
(ii) Accessibility: Files can be accessed directly while folders are used to hold and organize multiple files making them accessible through the folder structure.

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