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There are THREE sections in this paper

Section A (1-3)
Section B (4-6)
Section C (7-9)

You are required to answer FOUR questions in all.

Your are required to answer at least ONE question from each section.

We gave you answers to numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 & 9.

(i) Traditional Authority
(ii) Legal-Rational Authority
(iii) Charismatic Authority
(iv) Coercive Authority
(v) Divine Authority

(i) Custodians of Culture and Tradition: Traditional leaders play a vital role in preserving and promoting cultural heritage, customs, and traditions. They ensure that the community's cultural identity is maintained and passed on to future generations

(ii) Conflict Resolution: They mediate disputes and conflicts within the community. Their deep understanding of local customs and respect from the community often allows them to resolve conflicts amicably.

(iii) Community Mobilization: Traditional leaders can mobilize community members for various developmental projects, such as building schools, health centers, or roads. Their influence helps in garnering support and participation from the community.

(iv) Advisors to Government: In a democratic society, traditional leaders often serve as advisors to government officials on matters affecting their communities. Their insights can be invaluable in shaping policies that are culturally sensitive and effective.

(v) Promoters of Social Welfare: They advocate for the well-being of their people by addressing social issues such as education, health, and economic development. They may initiate programs to support vulnerable groups within the community.

(vi) Symbols of Unity and Continuity: Traditional leaders symbolize unity and continuity within their communities. They play a crucial role during ceremonies and rituals that reinforce social cohesion and collective identity.

(vii) Representatives of the People: They act as intermediaries between the government and the people, conveying the concerns, needs, and aspirations of their community to the authorities and ensuring that government policies and programs are understood and accepted by the community.

(viii) Guardians of Land and Resources: Traditional leaders oversee the use and management of communal land and natural resources. They ensure that resources are used sustainably and benefit the entire community, often mediating in land disputes and ensuring equitable distribution.


Community service is voluntary work intended to help people in a particular area. It is often organized by local groups, schools, or religious institutions and involves a range of activities aimed at improving the community's welfare and the environment


Community service can be defined as voluntary activities undertaken by individuals or groups to address local needs, improve community conditions, and contribute to the common good. It involves giving time, effort, and resources to support various causes and initiatives aimed at enhancing the well-being of community members

(i) Personal Growth and
Development: Develops skills such as leadership, communication, teamwork, and problem-solving. Boosts confidence and self-worth through meaningful contributions.

(ii) Civic Engagement and Responsibility: Encourages participants to become active and responsible citizens. it Increases understanding of social issues and community needs.

(iii) Social Connections: Provides opportunities to meet new people and build relationships.Strengthens ties within the community, fostering a sense of belonging.

(iv) Educational Benefits: Offers hands-on experiences that complement academic learning. Helps individuals explore potential career paths and gain relevant experience.

(v) Health and Well-being: Reduces stress and improves mental health through the satisfaction of helping others. it also engages participants in physical activities, improving overall fitness.

(vi) Community Improvement: Improves local services and infrastructure, such as parks, schools, and shelters. Directly meets the needs of vulnerable and underserved populations.

(vii) Economic Benefits: Reduces the financial burden on local governments by providing volunteer labor. Supports local economies through initiatives like community gardens and local business support.

(viii) Cultural Awareness and Diversity: Promotes understanding and appreciation of diverse cultures and perspectives. Encourages inclusivity and reduces social isolation and discrimination.


(i) Motorists
(ii) Pedestrians
(iii) Cyclists
(iv) Motorcyclists

(i) Obey Traffic Signals and Signs: All road users must adhere to traffic lights, stop signs, yield signs, and other traffic control devices. This ensures that traffic flows smoothly and reduces the risk of accidents.

(ii) Follow Speed Limits: Speed limits are set to ensure that vehicles are traveling at safe speeds for the given road conditions. Adhering to these limits helps prevent accidents and reduces the severity of collisions.

(iii) Use Crosswalks and Pedestrian Signals: Pedestrians should cross roads at designated crosswalks and follow pedestrian signals to ensure they are visible to drivers and can cross safely.

(iv) Use Proper Lane Discipline: Drivers and cyclists should stay in their designated lanes and use signals when changing lanes. This helps prevent confusion and accidents caused by unexpected lane changes.

(v) Avoid Distracted Driving: Road users should avoid activities that divert their attention from the road, such as texting, eating, or adjusting the radio. Staying focused on the road helps in identifying and reacting to potential hazards promptly.

(vi) Yield the Right of Way: All road users must understand and respect right-of-way rules to prevent collisions at intersections and other points where paths cross.

(vii) Wear Safety Gear: Cyclists should wear helmets, and drivers and passengers should use seat belts. This protective gear reduces the risk of injury in the event of an accident.

(viii) Ensure Vehicle Maintenance: Drivers should keep their vehicles in good working condition, including brakes, lights, tires, and mirrors. Proper maintenance helps prevent mechanical failures that could lead to accidents.

(ix) Avoid Impaired Driving: Driving under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or any substances that impair judgment and reaction time is prohibited. Impaired driving significantly increases the risk of accidents.


(i) Awareness and Education Programs:
Institutions should implement comprehensive awareness and education programs focusing on the dangers and consequences of substance abuse. These programs can include workshops, seminars, and interactive sessions led by healthcare professionals and recovering addicts to provide real-life perspectives.

(ii) Counseling Services: Institutions should establish accessible and confidential counseling services to support students dealing with substance abuse issues. Trained counselors can provide individual therapy, group therapy, and peer support groups, creating a safe space for students to seek help without fear of stigma.

(iii) Strict Enforcement of Policies: Implement and enforce strict policies against substance abuse within the institution. This includes the development of a clear code of conduct that outlines the consequences of substance abuse, such as suspension, expulsion, or mandatory participation in rehabilitation programs.

(iv) Parental Involvement: Encourage active parental involvement in substance abuse prevention efforts. Institutions can organize regular meetings, workshops, and communication channels where parents are educated on how to identify signs of substance abuse and how to support their children in making healthy choices.

(v) Extracurricular Activities: Promote and support a wide range of extracurricular activities to engage students in positive and healthy ways. Activities such as sports, music, arts, clubs, and volunteer work provide students with constructive outlets for their energy and creativity, reducing the likelihood of them turning to substances out of boredom or peer pressure.

(vi) Peer Education Programs: Develop peer education programs where trained students educate their peers about the risks of substance abuse. Peer educators can effectively communicate with fellow students in a relatable manner, often having a greater impact than adults or authority figures.

(vii) Collaboration with Health Organizations: Partner with local health organizations, non-profits, and government agencies to provide additional resources and support for substance abuse prevention and treatment. These organizations can offer expertise, funding, and specialized programs that enhance the institution's efforts.


(i) Use of Condoms
(ii) Regular Testing
(iii) Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)
(iv) Avoid Sharing Needles
(v) Safe Blood Transfusion Practices
(vi) Establishment of drug substitution therapy programmes
(vii) Comprehensive sexual education programs
(viii) Encouraging unmarried people to abstain from casual sex
(ix) Avoiding contact with infected body fluid such as blood.
(x) Distribution of sterilized needles, syringes and other equipments to hospitals

(i) Persistent Fever: Individuals living with HIV/AIDS often experience recurrent fevers that can last for weeks. This persistent fever is a result of the body trying to fight off various infections due to a weakened immune system.

(ii) Chronic Fatigue: Chronic fatigue is a common symptom among PLWHA. This extreme and ongoing tiredness can interfere with daily activities and is not relieved by rest or sleep, often indicating the body's constant battle against infections.

(iii) Weight Loss: Significant and unintended weight loss, also known as "wasting," is a symptom associated with HIV/AIDS. This occurs because the body uses more energy to fight infections and due to a loss of appetite or malabsorption of nutrients.

(iv) Skin Rashes and Sores: PLWHA may develop various skin issues, including rashes, sores, or lesions. These can appear on different parts of the body, including the face, trunk, and limbs, and are often persistent and difficult to treat.

(v) Swollen Lymph Nodes: Swelling of the lymph nodes, particularly in the neck, armpits, and groin, is a common symptom. These swollen nodes are a sign that the body is fighting an infection.

(vi) Night Sweats: Frequent and excessive sweating at night is another symptom experienced by PLWHA. Night sweats can be severe enough to soak clothing and bedding, indicating an ongoing infection or fever.

(vii) Headache: The systemic inflammation and immune response triggered by the HIV infection can result in severe headaches that can vary in intensity and may not respond to usual pain relief methods. These headaches are often part of the body’s general reaction to the viral infection.


(i) National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP)
(ii) Nigeria Police Force (NPF)
(iii) Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS)
(iv) Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC)
(v) Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development
(vi) Federal Ministry of Justice

(i) Loss of Human Rights: Victims of human trafficking suffer severe violations of their human rights, including forced labor, sexual exploitation, and physical and psychological abuse. These individuals are often stripped of their freedom and dignity.

(ii) Health Issues: Trafficked individuals frequently face significant health problems due to harsh living conditions, lack of access to medical care, and abuse. Common health issues include injuries, sexually transmitted infections, malnutrition, and mental health disorders such as depression and PTSD.

(iii) Economic Impact: Human trafficking undermines economic development by depriving the country of the potential contributions of trafficked individuals. It leads to a loss of productivity and increases the burden on social and healthcare services.

(iv) Social Disintegration: Human trafficking disrupts families and communities, leading to social instability. The loss of family members to trafficking can have long-lasting emotional and psychological effects on families and communities, eroding trust and social cohesion.

(v) Stigmatization: Survivors of human trafficking often face social stigma and discrimination, making reintegration into society difficult. This stigma can prevent survivors from seeking help and accessing necessary support services, further marginalizing them.

(vi) Legal Challenges: Prosecuting traffickers poses numerous challenges due to corruption within law enforcement and judicial systems, lack of resources, and inadequate legal frameworks.

(vii) Insecurity: Human trafficking contributes to broader security issues, including organized crime and terrorism. Trafficking networks often overlap with other criminal activities such as drug trafficking and arms smuggling.


The rule of law is a principle that ensures all individuals, institutions, and government entities are subject to and accountable under the law, which is enforced by an impartial and independent judiciary. It promotes equality, fairness, and justice, and prevents arbitrary use of power.


Rule of Law can be described as the principle and procedures necessary for the protection of individuals from arbitrary government. This involves the three principles of supremacy of the law, equality before the law and Fundamental Human Rights in the state.

(i) Independent Judiciary: A judiciary that operates independently of other branches of government can make unbiased decisions based solely on the law. Judicial independence ensures that judges can make rulings without fear of retribution or influence from political or private interests, which is crucial for fair and impartial justice.

(ii) Effective Legal Framework: Having a comprehensive and clear set of laws that are regularly updated and publicly accessible ensures that citizens know their rights and obligations. An effective legal framework should also include mechanisms for enforcing laws and resolving disputes.

(iii) Transparency and Accountability: Government officials and institutions must operate transparently, with clear procedures and open communication with the public. Accountability mechanisms, such as audits, oversight bodies, and independent media, are essential to hold officials responsible for their actions and decisions.

(iv) Access to Justice: All citizens should have the means to seek legal redress through the courts. This includes affordable legal services, public defenders for those who cannot afford private counsel, and efficient judicial processes that do not unduly delay justice.

(v) Equality Before the Law: Ensuring that laws are applied equally to all individuals, regardless of their socio-economic status, gender, race, or other characteristics, is fundamental to the rule of law. This requires robust anti-discrimination laws and policies.

(vi) Protection of Fundamental Rights: Laws should protect individual rights and freedoms, allowing citizens to exercise their rights without fear of oppression or unjust treatment. This includes freedoms of speech, assembly, and religion, as well as protection from arbitrary arrest and detention.

(vii) Public Awareness and Education: Educating citizens about their legal rights and responsibilities fosters a culture of lawfulness and encourages active participation in the democratic process. Public legal education can help individuals understand how to access justice and advocate for their rights.

(viii) Checks and Balances: A system of checks and balances ensures that no branch of government becomes too powerful. By dividing powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches and providing each with the means to limit the others, abuses of power can be prevented, maintaining the integrity of the rule of law.


(i) Corruption: Corruption remains a significant obstacle to democratic governance in many West African countries. It undermines public trust in institutions, skews policy decisions in favor of the corrupt, and diverts resources away from essential public services.

(ii) Political Instability: Frequent coups, political violence, and civil unrest disrupt democratic processes and hinder stable governance. Political instability can lead to a lack of continuity in policies and development initiatives, hampering economic and social progress.

(iii) Weak Institutions: Many West African countries struggle with institutions that lack the capacity, resources, or independence to function effectively. Weak institutions are often unable to enforce laws, deliver public services, or provide checks on executive power.

(iv) Poverty and Inequality: High levels of poverty and economic inequality limit political participation and access to justice for marginalized groups. Economic disparities can lead to social tensions and conflict, which undermine democratic stability.

(v) Ethnic and Religious Tensions: Deep-seated ethnic and religious divisions can lead to conflict and challenge national unity. These tensions can be exacerbated by political leaders who exploit them for electoral gain, further fragmenting society.

(vi) Electoral Fraud: Manipulation of electoral processes, including vote rigging, intimidation, and disenfranchisement, undermines the legitimacy of elections and the democratic process. Electoral fraud erodes public confidence in the democratic system and can lead to political violence.

(vii) Limited Press Freedom: Restrictions on press freedom, censorship, and harassment of journalists stifle public discourse and limit access to information. A free and independent media is crucial for holding government accountable and ensuring informed citizen participation.



(i) Structural Framework: The Constitution establishes the basic structure of government, including the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, and outlines their powers, functions, and interrelationships. It provides for a federal system of government with a division of powers between the federal and state governments.

(ii) Fundamental Rights: The Constitution of Nigeria guarantees fundamental rights and freedoms to its citizens, such as the right to life, dignity, equality before the law, freedom of expression, religion, and association. These rights are protected and enforceable in Nigerian courts.

(iii) Governmental Powers: The Constitution delineates the powers and responsibilities of the federal and state governments, specifying their respective areas of jurisdiction. It establishes the authority of each branch of government and provides mechanisms for checks and balances to prevent the abuse of power.

(iv) Citizenship and Identity: The Constitution defines who is considered a citizen of the county and outlines the rights and duties associated with citizenship. It also addresses issues of nationality, immigration, and the rights of minority groups within the country.

(v) Legal Framework: The Constitution serves as the supreme law of the country ,providing the legal foundation for the country's legal system. It establishes the principles of law, including the rule of law, due process, and the administration of justice.

(vi) Territorial Integrity: The Constitution addresses issues related to territorial integrity, boundaries, and sovereignty. It specifies the procedures for territorial changes, such as the creation of new states or local government areas, and the rights of subnational entities within the federation.

(vii) Amendment and Interpretation: The Constitution includes provisions for its own amendment and interpretation. Amendments may be made through a formal process involving the National Assembly and state legislatures, while the judiciary plays a crucial role in interpreting and applying the provisions of the Constitution.



(i) Framework of Government: The constitution establishes the structure, powers, and functions of the different branches of government. It defines the roles of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, outlining how they interact and operate. This framework ensures a clear separation of powers and responsibilities among the branches, which is essential for effective governance.
(ii) Fundamental Rights and Freedoms: The constitution enshrines the basic rights and freedoms of citizens, such as freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and the press. These rights are protected from infringement by the government or other entities, providing a legal basis for individuals to seek redress if their rights are violated.
(iii) Supremacy of Law: The constitution is the supreme law of the land, meaning that all other laws and government actions must conform to its provisions. This principle ensures that no law or executive action can override the constitution, providing a stable and predictable legal environment.
(iv) Rule of Law: The constitution promotes the rule of law by ensuring that all individuals and institutions are accountable to the law. It provides mechanisms for the fair and impartial administration of justice, protecting individuals from arbitrary treatment and abuse of power.
(v) Checks and Balances: The constitution establishes a system of checks and balances among the branches of government. Each branch has specific powers that can limit or check the actions of the other branches, preventing any one branch from becoming too powerful. This system helps maintain a balance of power and protects democratic governance.
(vi) Amendment Procedures: The constitution outlines the processes and requirements for making amendments to its provisions. This allows for the constitution to be updated and adapted to changing circumstances while ensuring that changes are made through a rigorous and democratic process.
(vii) Citizenship and Duties: The constitution defines the criteria for citizenship and outlines the rights, responsibilities, and duties of citizens. This includes provisions for acquiring, losing, and exercising citizenship rights, as well as the civic duties citizens must fulfill, such as paying taxes and participating in democratic processes.
(viii) Decentralization: The constitution may outline the framework for local governance and the distribution of powers to local authorities. This can include the establishment of local governments, their powers and responsibilities, and the relationship between central and local authorities.
(ix) Public Finance: The constitution establishes guidelines for the management of public finances, including budgeting, taxation, and expenditure. It may also include provisions for financial oversight and accountability, ensuring that public funds are used responsibly and transparently.
(x) Emergency Powers: The constitution defines the circumstances and procedures under which emergency powers can be invoked and exercised. This includes specifying the conditions for declaring a state of emergency, the powers that can be exercised during an emergency, and the safeguards to prevent abuse of these powers.

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