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WAEC 2023 - AGRIC SCIENCE  ANSWER
WAEC 2023 - AGRIC SCIENCE  ANSWER

WAEC 2023 - AGRIC SCIENCE  ANSWER



AGRIC OBJ
1-10: CDCBCABCAB
11-20: ACCBCACCAC
21-30: CBABACCABD
31-40: BCDCBDADDA
41-50: CDADBCCACA


(1a)
(PICK ANY ONE
Credit in agricultural finance involves the provision of loans that must be repaid by borrowers, while subsidies are grants or direct payments provided by the government to support specific agricultural objectives without the requirement of repayment.

OR

Credit is a situation whereby sellers allow buyers to take possession of goods and services and pay later while subsidy is a situation whereby part of the money a buyer is meant to pay for good is paid for by the government

(1b)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Fertilizers
(ii) Seeds
(iii) Livestock feed
(iv) Research and development
(v) Crop insurance
(vi) Training and Education
(vii) Agricultural machinery
(viii) Energy
(ix) Pesticides and Herbicides
(x) Labour


(1c)
(PICK ANY SIX)
(i) Tire Inspection
(ii) Regular oil changes
(iii) Belt inspection and adjustment
(iv) Hydraulic system maintenance
(v) Fuel filter replacement
(vi) Greasing and lubrication of moving parts
(vii) Cleaning and replacing air filters
(viii) Inspecting and tightening bolts and connections

(1d)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Read and understand the operator's manual
(ii) Wear appropriate protective gear
(iii) Conduct pre-operation checks
(iv) Always check the water level
(v) Avoid loose clothing and jewelry
(vi) Use safety guards and shields
(vii) Clear the work area
(viii) Follow safe refueling practices like turning off the machinery before refueling

=============================

(2ai)
Agricultural ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between agricultural systems and the surrounding natural environment, including the ecological processes, relationships, and dynamics within agricultural landscapes

OR

Agricultural ecology focuses on understanding the ecological principles and dynamics involved in agricultural systems, including the interactions between crops, livestock, soil, water, climate, pests, and beneficial organisms, and how these interactions influence sustainability, productivity, and environmental impacts.

OR

Agricultural ecology explores the ecological interactions and feedbacks between agricultural components (such as crops, livestock, and farming practices) and the surrounding ecological factors (such as soil, climate, water, and biodiversity), with the goal of promoting ecological sustainability, biodiversity conservation, and the efficient use of resources in agricultural systems.

(2aii)
(PICK ANY ONE)
An ecosystem is a dynamic and interconnected system that includes cultivated crops, livestock, soil, water resources, and the associated biological, physical, and chemical processes within a farming environment.

OR

An ecosystems refer to the managed ecosystems in which agricultural activities take place, involving the interactions between crops, animals, farmers, and the surrounding environment, including soil, water, air, and biodiversity.

OR

An ecosystems can be defined as the integrated systems of crops, livestock, and their environment, encompassing the interactions and interdependencies between agricultural components, natural resources, and human management practices.

OR

An ecosystem refers to the complex interaction between living organisms, including plants, animals, and microorganisms, and the physical environment in which they exist within the context of agriculture

(2bi)
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) crops
(ii) livestocks
(iii) soil microorganisms
(iv) insects
(v) Birds
(vi) Earthworms

(2bii)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Soil
(ii) Air
(iii) Water
(iv) Temperature
(v) Rock and Minerals
(vi) Sunlight
(vii) Topoghraphy

(2c)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Ensure that the storage area is clean, dry, and free from pests or any sources of contamination.
(ii) Use high-quality, airtight bags or containers specifically designed for grain storage.
(iii) Maize should be properly dried before storage to prevent spoilage.
(iv) Install ventilation systems or place the bags in a way that allows air to circulate freely,in order to reduce the risk of moisture buildup.
(v) Implement effective pest control measures to avoid infestations.
(vi) Avoid exposure to extreme heat or direct sunlight.
(vii) Regularly inspect the stored maize for any signs of spoilage, mold, or pest activity.
(viii) Stack the bags of maize properly, ensuring that they are stable and not prone to collapsing.

(2d)
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Rose
(ii) Hibiscus
(iii) Sunflower
(iv) Tulip
(v) Lily
(vi) Dahlia
(vii) Iris

============================

(3ai)
Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp)

(3aii)
(PICK ANY ONE)
-Through Infected plant material
-Through Contaminated soil
-Through Runoff Water

(3aiii)
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) Yellowing of leaves
(ii) Stunted growth
(iii) Root swellings
(iv) Poor fruit production

(3aiv)
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) Crop rotation.
(ii) Soil sterilization.
(iii) Use resistant varieties.
(iv) Use nematocides such as furadan
(v) Use heavy doses of organic matter application.

(3bi)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Improved soil structure
(ii) Soil fertility Improvement
(iii) Enhanced plant growth
(iv) Increased nutrient availability
(v) Improved crop yield

(3bii)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Reduced soil erosion
(ii) Promotion of sustainable land use
(iii) Improved water infiltration
(iv) Preservation of soil structure
(v) Enhanced nutrient cycling

(3biii)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Overgrazing can lead to soil compaction
(ii) Overgrazing can contribute to increased soil erosion.
(iii) Reduced water-holding capacity
(iv) Soil degradation
(v) Changes in soil nutrient cycling

(3c)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Production of crops
(ii) Livestock production
(iii) Forestry
(iv) Wildlife conservation
(v) Fishery
(vi) Horticulture

============================

(4a)
(i) Clearing
(ii) Tillage
(iii) Ridging
(iv) Planting

(4b)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) It serves as food
(ii) It can be utilized as a source of animal feed
(iii) Cassava tubers can be processed into various food products
(iv) Cassava plants are utilized in certain regions for their ability to improve soil fertility, control erosion, and prevent nutrient depletion.
(v) In some traditional medicinal practices, cassava tubers and leaves are used for their potential therapeutic properties
(vi) Cassava starch can be used to produce biodegradable packaging materials
(vii) Cassava tubers have industrial applications in various sectors like in the textile industry for sizing fabrics and improving their quality.

(4ci)
Expected number of yam plants = Number of planting spots per hectare * Total area of the farmland
Expected number of yam plants = 10,000 * 1.5 = 15,000
Therefore, the expected number of yam plants on the 1.5 hectares of farmland would be 15,000 plants.

(4cii)
Total weight = Expected number of yam plants * Average weight of each yam tuber
Total weight = 15,000 * 3.5 kg = 52,500 kg
Therefore, the total weight of the yam tubers harvested on the 1.5 hectares of farmland would be 52,500 kilograms (or 52.5 metric tons).

(4d)
Diet refers to the overall composition and combination of feeds and ingredients that an animal consumes over a certain period WHILE a ration, on the other hand, is a specific amount or quantity of feed that is provided to an animal during a single feeding event or within a specific time period, typically a day.

=============================

(5a)
PLEASE TABULATE:

SYMPTOMS:
(iv) Red lesions on the heads chest, forelegs and ridges

DISEASES:
(i) Tuberculosis
(viii) Rinder pest

PREVENTION:
(ii) Isolation if infected animal
(iii) Good sanitation
(v) Vaccination
(vii) Good sanitation
(viii) Vaccination
(ix) Restrict infected animals movement

(5bi)
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) The primary role of the queen bee is to lay eggs
(ii) They reproduce by mating with drones (male bees) to fertilize the eggs
(ii) It produce chemical scents that help maintain social cohesion within the colony
(iii) The queen bee contributes to the genetic diversity of the colony by mating with drones from different colonies.
(iv) The queen's pheromones inhibit the reproductive abilities of the worker bees, preventing them from laying eggs and ensuring that the queen remains the sole reproducer in the colony.

(5bii)
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) Worker bees care for the brood (eggs, larvae, and pupae) in the colony
(ii) Worker bees are responsible for maintaining the cleanliness and hygiene of the hive.
(iii)They help in making the wax
(iv) They are responsible for collecting nectar, pollen, water, and propolis (plant resins) from the surrounding environment.

(5c)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) They aid the decompositions
(ii) To prevent pollution
(iii) It makes the action of the bacteria rapid
(iv) To Prevent interference by rain or sun
(v) To retain moisture and reduce odour
(vi) It helps prevent access to the decomposing organic matter, reducing the chances of infestations by rodents, insects, and scavengers that may disrupt the composting process
(vii) The cover helps retain the nutrients present in the composting materials.
(viii) A cover helps suppress weed growth within the compost pile.

============================

(6)



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