NECO GCE 2023 - GOVERNMENT ANSWER
Government as an institution of the state, is the organized system through which authority and control are exercised over a defined territory and its inhabitants. It is responsible for making and enforcing laws, managing public resources, and providing essential services for the well-being of its citizens.
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(i) Legislation and Law Enforcement: Governments create laws that regulate the conduct of individuals and institutions. They establish law enforcement agencies to ensure compliance with these laws and maintain order in society.
(ii) Defense and National Security: Governments are tasked with safeguarding the country from external threats. This involves maintaining armed forces and implementing strategies to protect national sovereignty and citizens.
(iii) Public Order and Safety: Governments work to maintain public order by preventing and responding to criminal activities. They establish police forces and emergency services to ensure the safety of citizens.
(iv) Public Infrastructure and Services: Governments are involved in the development and maintenance of public infrastructure such as roads, schools, and healthcare facilities. They also provide essential services like education, healthcare, and sanitation.
(v) Economic Regulation and Development: Governments regulate economic activities to ensure fair competition and protect consumers. They also implement policies to stimulate economic growth, create employment, and address issues of poverty.
(vi) Diplomacy and Foreign Relations: Governments engage in diplomatic activities to maintain relations with other nations. They negotiate treaties, participate in international organizations, and represent the country's interests on the global stage.
(vii) Social Welfare and Redistribution: Governments implement social welfare programs to address social issues such as poverty and unemployment. They may use taxation and social assistance programs to redistribute wealth and promote a more equitable society.
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(i) Public corporations are government-owned entities created for commercial or industrial activities. The civil service consists of government employees working in administrative and executive roles to implement government policies.
(ii) Public corporations have government ownership but operate with a degree of autonomy. The civil service is directly owned and controlled by the government.
(iii) Public corporations have a profit motive, aiming to generate revenue. The civil service is not profit-oriented; its primary goal is to provide services and support government functions.
(iv) Public corporations have a management structure similar to private businesses while the civil service operates within a bureaucratic structure with defined hierarchies.
(v) Public corporations focus on providing specific services to the public. The civil service is involved in administrative functions and public service provision.
(vi) Public corporations generate revenue and may receive funding from various sources while the civil service is funded directly by the government.
(vii) Public corporations have more flexibility and autonomy in decision-making while the civil service operates within a framework of rules and regulations.
(viii) Public corporations are accountable to boards, shareholders, and regulatory bodies. The civil service is accountable to the government and operates with transparency.
(i) Red-tapism: This refers to excessive bureaucratic rules, procedures, and paperwork that can impede the efficient functioning of government organizations. It often results in delays, inefficiencies, and a slow decision-making process due to rigid adherence to formalities and unnecessary protocols.
(ii) Devolution of Powers: This involves the transfer of certain powers, responsibilities, and decision-making authority from a central government to regional or local levels. It aims to promote local governance, enhance responsiveness to local needs, and decentralize decision-making to ensure effective administration. Countries like the United Kingdom practice devolution, where powers are transferred to regions such as Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
(iii) Gerrymandering: This is the manipulation of electoral district boundaries to favor a particular political party or group, often to secure an advantage in elections. It involves shaping district boundaries to concentrate or dilute the voting power of certain demographics strategically. This can distort representation, undermine electoral fairness, and lead to outcomes that do not accurately reflect the preferences of the electorate.
(iv) Checks and Balances: This is a system in government where different branches have the power to monitor, restrain, and balance the actions of other branches to prevent the abuse of power. It ensures that no single branch (executive, legislative, or judicial) becomes too powerful, promoting accountability and protecting against potential tyranny.
Adult suffrage refers to the principle in democratic systems where the right to vote is granted to all adult citizens, typically without discrimination based on factors such as gender, race, religion, or social status. It ensures that individuals who have reached a certain age, usually 18 or older, have the right to participate in the electoral process, contributing to the democratic principle of political equality.
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(i) Age Requirement: Citizens must reach a certain age, commonly 18 years or older, to be eligible to vote. This qualification is based on the assumption that individuals of a certain age possess the maturity and understanding necessary to make informed decisions in the voting process.
(ii) Citizenship: Only citizens of the country are granted the right to vote. Citizenship establishes a person's legal and political connection to the country, ensuring that those who participate in the electoral process have a stake in the nation's future.
(iii) Residency: Voters are required to be residents of a particular electoral constituency or district. This qualifications ensure that individuals voting in a specific area have a direct connection to the issues and concerns of that locality.
(iv) Registration: Individuals need to register as voters before participating in elections. This helps maintain accurate voter rolls, prevents fraud, and facilitates the organization of elections.
(v)Educational Qualifications: Educational qualifications may be considered in certain democracies, where individuals need to meet a minimum education level to be eligible to vote. This may be seen as a measure to ensure that voters have a basic understanding of civic responsibilities and the implications of their choices.
(vi) Mental Competence: Voters are generally expected to be mentally competent and capable of understanding the significance of their choices. This ensures that individuals can make decisions aligned with their own interests and the welfare of society.
(vii) Non-Discrimination: Democratic states emphasize non-discrimination in voting based on gender, race, religion, or socioeconomic status. This qualification upholds the democratic principle of equal representation and prevents the exclusion of certain groups from the electoral process.
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(i) Suspension of Civil Liberties: During military rule in Nigeria, civil liberties and democratic rights were often suspended or restricted. Constitutional rights such as freedom of speech, assembly, and association were curtailed to maintain control.
(ii) Centralized Authority and Autocracy: Military regimes in Nigeria were characterized by a concentration of power in the hands of a few military leaders. Decisions were often made centrally, with little or no input from the civilian population.
(iii) Suppression of Political Opposition: Military rule in Nigeria witnessed the suppression of political opposition. Opposition parties were often banned, and political activities that challenged the military regime were met with repression, arrests, and censorship.
(iv) Establishment of Military Tribunals: Military tribunals were frequently established to handle legal matters, often bypassing the civilian judiciary. This led to a lack of due process and undermined the independence of the judiciary.
(v) Economic Mismanagement and Corruption: Military rule in Nigeria was marked by economic mismanagement and corruption. The military regimes were often criticized for lack of transparency, embezzlement of public funds, and inefficient economic policies.
(vi) Strategic Resource Control: Military rulers in Nigeria tended to control strategic resources, including oil revenues. This control allowed them significant influence and resources, but it also contributed to corruption and economic imbalances.
(vii) Periodic Suspension of the Constitution: Military rule in Nigeria saw the periodic suspension of the constitution. Military leaders justified these actions as necessary for maintaining order, but it also eroded the rule of law and constitutional governance.
(viii) Social Unrest and Civil Strife: Military rule in Nigeria was often marked by social unrest and civil strife. Repressive measures, economic challenges, and political instability contributed to periods of social upheaval, with protests and demonstrations against the government.
(PICK ANY SIX)
(i) Enhanced Voter Education: Implement comprehensive voter education programs to inform citizens about their rights, the electoral process, and the consequences of engaging in electoral malpractice, fostering a more informed electorate.
(ii) Technological Innovations: Introduce and improve the use of technology in the electoral process, such as biometric voter registration and electronic voting systems, to enhance transparency, reduce manual errors, and deter malpractice.
(iii) Independent Electoral Commission Oversight: Strengthen the independence of the electoral commission by insulating it from political interference, ensuring that it operates impartially and conducts free and fair elections.
(iv) Stiffer Penalties for Offenders: Enforce stringent legal penalties for individuals found guilty of electoral malpractice, including vote-buying, ballot stuffing, and intimidation, to deter potential offenders and uphold the rule of law.
(v) Active Civil Society Participation: Encourage active involvement of civil society organizations in monitoring and reporting electoral processes. Civil society can play a crucial role in exposing malpractices and promoting transparency.
(vi) Transparent Campaign Financing: Implement and enforce transparent regulations for campaign financing to reduce the influence of money in politics, ensuring a level playing field for all candidates and parties.
(vii) Community Engagement and Sensitization: Engage local communities through awareness campaigns, town hall meetings, and civic education to foster a culture of civic responsibility and discourage participation in electoral malpractice.
(viii) International Observers: Invite international election observers to monitor the electoral process, providing an external and impartial assessment of the fairness and credibility of the elections, thereby promoting transparency and accountability.
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(i) Enhanced Regional Cooperation: Strengthen collaboration and coordination among ECOWAS member states to address common challenges. Greater regional cooperation can lead to shared solutions for economic, political, and security issues.
(ii) Effective Implementation of Policies: Ensure the effective implementation of regional policies and agreements to foster economic integration. Member states should commit to fulfilling their obligations under ECOWAS frameworks, promoting consistency and coherence.
(iii) Addressing Security Concerns: Develop and implement a comprehensive regional security strategy to address challenges such as terrorism, transnational crime, and conflicts. A collective approach to security issues can enhance stability in the West African region.
(iv) Infrastructure Development: Prioritize infrastructure development, including transportation, energy, and telecommunications, to facilitate intra-regional trade and economic activities. Improved infrastructure can contribute to economic growth and development.
(v) Trade Facilitation and Economic Diversification: Implement measures to facilitate trade within the region and reduce trade barriers. Additionally, encourage economic diversification to reduce dependence on specific sectors and enhance resilience against external shocks.
(vi) Capacity Building and Skill Development: Invest in human capital development, including education and skill training programs, to build a capable workforce. A skilled and educated population can contribute to economic growth and innovation.
(vii) Promotion of Good Governance: Advocate for and support good governance practices in member states, including transparency, accountability, and the rule of law. Strengthening governance institutions can improve public trust and contribute to stable political environments.
(viii) Climate Change Mitigation and Environmental Sustainability: Address climate change challenges by promoting sustainable environmental practices and resilience strategies. This includes initiatives for renewable energy, conservation, and climate adaptation measures.
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(i) Political Leadership: Traditional rulers, often known as kings or obas, played a central role in the political organization of Yoruba society. They were the supreme leaders and decision-makers, overseeing the affairs of their kingdoms and maintaining order.
(ii) Custodians of Culture and Tradition: Traditional rulers were the custodians of the Yoruba culture and traditions. They preserved the cultural heritage, rituals, and customs of the society, ensuring the continuity of Yoruba identity across generations.
(iii) Religious Authority: Traditional rulers held significant religious authority. They often served as intermediaries between the people and the deities, performing religious ceremonies, rituals, and ensuring the spiritual well-being of the community.
(iv) Conflict Resolution: Traditional rulers were responsible for resolving disputes and conflicts within their domains. They acted as mediators, dispensing justice based on customary laws and ensuring the maintenance of peace and harmony.
(v) Economic Management: Traditional rulers played a role in the economic affairs of their kingdoms. They controlled access to land, allocated resources, and oversaw economic activities, contributing to the economic stability of the society.
(vi) Military Leadership: In times of war, traditional rulers assumed military leadership roles. They led their warriors into battle, formulated military strategies, and defended the kingdom from external threats.
(vii) Symbolic Representation: Traditional rulers served as symbols of unity and continuity. Their presence and authority embodied the unity of the Yoruba people, and they played a crucial role in fostering a sense of collective identity.
(viii) Social Welfare and Charity: Traditional rulers were often involved in social welfare activities. They supported the less fortunate, provided for widows and orphans, and contributed to the overall well-being of the community through charitable acts.
Colonialism refers to the political, economic, and cultural domination of one territory or nation by another, often more powerful, external entity. It involves the establishment and maintenance of colonies, which are territories controlled and exploited by the colonial power for its own benefit. The motives behind colonialism include economic exploitation, resource extraction, geopolitical influence, and the spread of cultural or religious ideologies.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Representing the Monarch: The Governor General served as the representative of the monarch (in the case of British colonies) and the head of the colonial administration. They embodied the authority of the imperial power in the colony.
(ii) Executive Authority: The Governor General held executive powers and was responsible for implementing laws, policies, and directives from the colonial metropolis. They oversaw the day-to-day administration of the colony.
(iii) Military Leadership: In many cases, the Governor General had command over the colonial military forces. They played a crucial role in maintaining order, suppressing rebellions, and defending the interests of the colonial power.
(iv) Diplomatic Relations: The Governor General managed diplomatic relations between the colony and other colonial territories, as well as with foreign powers. They represented the colony in international affairs and negotiations.
(v) Legislative Functions: The Governor General often had a role in the legislative process. While colonial legislatures existed, the Governor General had the power to approve or veto legislation and could issue ordinances in the absence of a legislative body.
(vi) Economic Oversight: The Governor General played a role in economic matters, overseeing trade policies, resource exploitation, and revenue collection. Economic decisions were often made in the interest of the colonial power.
(vii) Social and Cultural Influence: The Governor General, as a representative of the colonial power, exerted influence over social and cultural aspects of the colony. This could include the promotion of colonial education, religion, and cultural practices aligned with the imperial power's values.
(viii) Appointment of Officials: The Governor General had the authority to appoint key officials, including members of the colonial administration, judges, and other administrative personnel. This power allowed them to shape the composition of the colonial bureaucracy.
(PICK ANY SIX)
(i) Colonial Exploitation and Oppression: The experience of exploitation and oppression under colonial rule fueled a sense of discontent among Nigerians. Economic exploitation, social discrimination, and political marginalization created a common grievance that united various ethnic and social groups in their desire for independence.
(ii) Educational Opportunities: The establishment of educational institutions by the colonial authorities inadvertently contributed to the nationalist movement. Education exposed Nigerians to enlightenment ideals, democratic principles, and nationalist movements in other parts of the world, fostering a sense of political consciousness.
(iii) Formation of Political Associations: The emergence of political associations and movements provided a platform for Nigerians to express their grievances and advocate for self-governance. Organizations like the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) and the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) played crucial roles in the nationalist struggle.
(iv) Impact of World Wars: The two World Wars had significant implications for the nationalist movement. Nigerians, having contributed to the wars, returned home with heightened expectations of political rights and self-determination, as their sacrifices for the British Empire were juxtaposed with their colonial status.
(v) Print and Media: The growth of newspapers and other forms of media provided a means for nationalist leaders to disseminate information, articulate their views, and mobilize support. Newspapers like West African Pilot and Daily Times became influential platforms for nationalist discourse.
(vi) Economic Changes: The economic transformation brought about by factors such as the development of cash crops and the expansion of trade exposed Nigerians to economic disparities. This economic evolution contributed to a desire for political control over economic resources, further fueling nationalist sentiments.
(vii) Emergence of Nationalist Leaders: The rise of charismatic and visionary leaders, such as Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, and Ahmadu Bello, played a critical role in galvanizing support for the nationalist cause. These leaders articulated the aspirations of the people and led movements advocating for self-rule.
(viii) International Support and Solidarity: The global context of decolonization and the emergence of independent nations provided inspiration and support for the Nigerian nationalist movement. International forums like the United Nations became platforms for expressing grievances against colonial rule, fostering a sense of solidarity among colonized nations.