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NECO 2024 EXPO RUNS (Score A's and B's In YOUR 2024 NECO Exam) (Click Here now to Get Our Assistance)

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NABTEB 2024 EXPO RUNS (Score A's and B's In YOUR 2024 NABTEB Exam) (Click Here now to Get Our Assistance)








• You are required to answer FIVE questions in all
• You are required to answer TWO questions from section A and THREE questions from section B
• Section A (1 - 4)
• Section B (5 - 10)


Power is the ability or capacity of an individual or institution to influence, control, or command the behavior of others, and to make and enforce decisions.


Power is the ability or capacity to influence or control the behavior of others, institutions, or events to achieve desired outcomes.

(i) Elections: Political leaders gain power through democratic elections where citizens vote for their preferred candidates. Elected officials derive their authority from the consent of the governed.

(ii) Inheritance: In some political systems, power is inherited through family lineage. Monarchies and traditional leadership structures often transfer power from one generation to the next within a ruling family.

(iii) Appointment: Political power can be acquired through appointment by higher authorities. For example, judges, ministers, and government officials may be appointed by a president or prime minister.

(iv) Revolution: Political power can be seized through revolutionary movements that overthrow existing governments. Revolutionary leaders gain power by mobilizing mass support and often establish new political systems.

(v) Military Coup: In some instances, political power is acquired through a military coup, where the armed forces overthrow the existing government and install military leaders in positions of authority.

(vi) Charismatic Leadership: Individuals with strong personal charisma and leadership qualities can gain political power by inspiring and mobilizing followers. Their ability to attract and influence people often leads to leadership roles.

(vii) Legal Frameworks: Political power can be acquired through legal and constitutional frameworks. Individuals or groups may gain power by forming political parties, participating in governance structures, and adhering to the rule of law.

(viii) Economic Influence: Wealthy individuals or groups can acquire political power by leveraging their economic resources. Financial contributions to political campaigns, lobbying, and economic investments can influence political decisions and policies.

(ix) Social Movements: Leaders of social movements can gain political power by advocating for specific causes and mobilizing public support. These movements can lead to significant political changes and the rise of new political leaders.


Franchise refers to the right or privilege granted to individuals to vote in public elections. It is a fundamental aspect of democratic systems, allowing citizens to participate in the selection of their representatives and the formation of government policies.


Franchise may be defined as the right of qualified adult citizens of a given society to vote and be voted for in an election.

(i) Age: Candidates must meet a minimum age requirement, usually 18, to be eligible to vote. This ensures that voters have reached an age of maturity and responsibility.

(ii) Citizenship: Only citizens of a country are eligible to vote in its elections. This requirement ensures that those who participate in the electoral process have a vested interest in the nation's governance.

(iii) Residency: Voters must be residents of the constituency or electoral district where they intend to vote. Residency requirements ensure that voters are familiar with local issues and candidates.

(iv) Voter Registration: Eligible voters must register with the appropriate electoral authority before participating in elections. Voter registration helps maintain accurate and up-to-date electoral rolls and prevents fraudulent voting

(v) Mental Competency: Individuals must be mentally competent to vote. Those declared legally insane or mentally incapacitated may be disqualified from voting to ensure that voters can make informed decisions.

(vi) Non-Disqualification: Certain individuals may be disqualified from voting due to legal reasons, such as being convicted of serious crimes or electoral offenses. These disqualifications are in place to maintain the integrity of the electoral process.

(vii) Proof of Identity: Voters are often required to provide proof of identity, such as a national ID card or passport, to verify their eligibility and prevent impersonation or multiple voting.


Public opinion is the collective attitudes, beliefs, and views of the general population or specific groups within a society regarding particular issues, events, policies, or individuals.


Public Opinion can be described as the aggregate views of the people at a given time and on a particular issue or matter.

(i) Media Manipulation: The media can shape public opinion by presenting information in a biased or manipulative manner. Selective reporting, sensationalism, and framing of issues can distort the public's understanding, leading to skewed opinions.

(ii) Misinformation: The spread of false or misleading information can significantly impact public opinion. With the rise of social media, misinformation and fake news can spread rapidly, creating confusion and shaping opinions based on false premises.

(iii) Lack of Education and Awareness: Public opinion may be unreliable if people lack adequate education and awareness about political, social, and economic issues. A lack of understanding can lead to opinions based on incomplete or incorrect information.

(iv) Emotional and Psychological Factors: Public opinion can be influenced by emotions, prejudices, and psychological biases. Fear, anger, and other strong emotions can overshadow rational judgment, leading to opinions that are not based on objective analysis.

(v) Social Influence and Peer Pressure: Individuals' opinions can be heavily influenced by their social circles, including family, friends, and community groups. Peer pressure and the desire to conform to the views of others can result in opinions that do not accurately reflect personal beliefs or facts.

(vi) Political Propaganda: Governments, political parties, and interest groups may use propaganda to influence public opinion. Through targeted messaging and strategic communication, they can sway public perception in favor of their agendas, sometimes at the expense of truth and objectivity.

(vii) Survey and Polling Bias: The methods used to gather public opinion, such as surveys and polls, can introduce biases. Sampling errors, leading questions, and non-representative samples can result in inaccurate reflections of the broader population's views.


Electoral Constituency: An electoral constituency is a geographically defined area represented by an elected official or officials in a legislative body. Constituencies are established to ensure that citizens in different regions have representation in government. Each constituency elects one or more representatives based on the population size and the electoral system in place.

Plurality System: The plurality system is an electoral method in which the candidate with the most votes in a constituency wins the election, regardless of whether they have achieved an absolute majority of the votes. This system is commonly used in single-member districts and is prevalent in countries like the United Kingdom and the United States. The plurality system tends to favor larger political parties and can lead to a winner-takes-all outcome, potentially marginalizing smaller parties and minority groups.

Electoral Malpractice: Electoral malpractice refers to illegal or unethical behavior that undermines the integrity of the electoral process. This can include a wide range of activities, such as vote rigging, voter intimidation, ballot stuffing, tampering with election results, and bribery. Electoral malpractice distorts the democratic process, erodes public trust in the political system, and can lead to illegitimate governments.

Impeachment: Impeachment is a formal process in which a sitting government official is accused of wrongdoing, misconduct, or abuse of power. In many democratic systems, impeachment involves a legislative body bringing charges against the official, often followed by a trial and potential removal from office. Impeachment is a critical mechanism for holding public officials accountable and maintaining the rule of law.


(i) Economic Growth: Interaction with other nations fosters economic growth through trade agreements, which open up new markets for exports and provide access to a wider range of goods and services. For instance, countries can import advanced technologies and machinery that are not produced domestically, boosting productivity and economic output.

(ii) Cultural Exchange: Through cultural exchange programs, tourism, and international collaborations, countries gain a deeper understanding and appreciation of each other's traditions, languages, and customs. This can lead to greater tolerance, enriched cultural diversity, and the adoption of beneficial practices from other cultures.

(iii) Political Alliances: Forming political alliances with other nations can provide mutual support in international forums such as the United Nations. These alliances can lead to joint initiatives on global issues like climate change, terrorism, and human rights, strengthening a country's influence and standing on the world stage.

(iv) Technological Advancement: International interactions enable countries to share technological innovations and advancements. Collaborative research and development projects, technology transfer agreements, and participation in global technology forums can accelerate technological progress and improve national infrastructure.

(v) Educational Opportunities: Countries benefit from educational exchanges, where students and academics study abroad, participate in international conferences, and engage in collaborative research. These opportunities enhance knowledge, skills, and global perspectives, contributing to a more educated and globally competitive workforce.

(vi) Healthcare Improvements: Interacting with other nations allows for the exchange of medical knowledge, practices, and innovations. Joint efforts in disease control, pandemic response, and medical research can lead to significant improvements in national healthcare systems and better health outcomes for the population.

(vii) Security Cooperation: Countries can collaborate on security issues, sharing intelligence, conducting joint military exercises, and cooperating on counter-terrorism efforts. This enhances national security and helps in addressing global security challenges.

(viii) Environmental Protection: International cooperation is crucial for addressing global environmental challenges such as climate change, deforestation, and pollution. Countries can work together on environmental protection initiatives, share best practices, and implement international agreements to safeguard the planet


(i) Political Instability: The crises led to serious political unrest in the Western Region. There were many disagreements and conflicts among party members, which disrupted the government and made it hard to maintain order.

(ii) Military Intervention: The crises weakened democratic governance and led to the first military coup in 1966. The military took over the government because civilian leaders couldn't manage the situation.

(iii) Ethnic Tensions: The crises increased distrust and tension among Nigeria's different ethnic groups. This made it harder for people from different regions to work together and created more division.

(iv) Economic Problems: The instability in the Western Region hurt the economy. Agriculture, trade, and industry were all affected, leading to economic decline and hardship for many people.

(v) Judicial Issues: The crises showed problems in Nigeria’s legal system. Political interference in court cases made it clear that the judiciary could be manipulated, undermining trust in legal processes.

(vi) Loss of Public Trust: The crises made many Nigerians lose faith in their political leaders and the democratic process. People saw the conflicts and corruption and felt that their leaders could not be trusted.

(vii) More States Created: To manage the ethnic and regional tensions, the government later created more states. This was an attempt to reduce the power of any single region and make governance more balanced.

(viii) Path to Civil War: The crises contributed to the events that led to the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970). The ethnic and political conflicts that started during the crises continued to grow and eventually led to war.


(i) Cultural Preservation: Traditional rulers are custodians of cultural heritage, preserving and promoting traditional customs, languages, and practices. Their involvement in cultural festivals and ceremonies helps maintain the cultural identity and continuity of their communities.

(ii) Conflict Resolution: As respected figures in their communities, traditional rulers mediate disputes and conflicts, providing alternative dispute resolution mechanisms that are often more accessible and trusted than formal judicial systems. Their mediation helps maintain peace and harmony.

(ii) Advisory Roles: Traditional rulers provide valuable advice to government officials on local matters, leveraging their deep understanding of community needs and dynamics. Their insights help inform policy decisions and ensure that government actions are aligned with the interests of the local population.

(iv) Community Mobilization: Traditional rulers play a key role in mobilizing their communities for developmental projects and social initiatives. Their influence and authority can galvanize community members to participate in health campaigns, educational programs, and infrastructure development.

(v) Traditional Ceremonies: By conducting traditional ceremonies and rituals, traditional rulers reinforce social norms, values, and moral codes. These ceremonies play a vital role in community cohesion and the transmission of cultural knowledge to younger generations.

(vi) Security: Traditional rulers collaborate with local security agencies to ensure the safety and security of their communities. Their involvement in community policing and crime prevention initiatives helps maintain law and order and enhances trust in security institutions.

(vii) Grassroots Governance: Traditional rulers serve as a bridge between the government and the people at the grassroots level. Their close ties to the community enable them to represent local interests effectively and ensure that government policies and programs are tailored to meet the specific needs of their constituents.

(viii) Educational Promotion: Traditional rulers advocate for education and support the establishment of schools and educational programs in their domains. They play a role in encouraging school attendance, supporting educational infrastructure, and fostering a culture of learning within their communities


(i) Legislative Functions: The General Assembly formulates international policies and sets global standards through resolutions and declarations. These legislative activities provide a framework for international cooperation on issues such as human rights, disarmament, and sustainable development.

(ii) Peacekeeping Operations: The General Assembly authorizes and oversees peacekeeping missions in conflict zones. These operations aim to maintain peace and security, protect civilians, and support post-conflict reconstruction and governance.

(iii) Human Rights Advocacy: Through its various bodies and mechanisms, the General Assembly promotes and protects human rights globally. It monitors human rights violations, raises awareness, and advocates for the rights of marginalized and vulnerable populations.

(iv) Humanitarian Assistance: The General Assembly coordinates international responses to natural disasters, humanitarian crises, and emergencies. It mobilizes resources, supports relief efforts, and facilitates cooperation among member states and humanitarian organizations.

(v) Development Programs: The General Assembly implements development programs aimed at poverty reduction, education, healthcare, and sustainable development. These programs support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and improve living conditions worldwide.

(vi) Environmental Protection: The General Assembly facilitates global cooperation on environmental issues and climate change. It promotes initiatives to protect biodiversity, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and ensure sustainable management of natural resources.

(vi) Global Health: The General Assembly works on global health issues, supporting initiatives to combat diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. It promotes universal healthcare access and strengthens health systems in developing countries.

(vii) Gender Equality: The General Assembly advocates for gender equality and the empowerment of women. It adopts resolutions, supports gender mainstreaming, and monitors the implementation of international agreements on women's rights


(i) Service Delivery: Local government councils are responsible for providing essential services such as water supply, waste management, sanitation, and public health. These services are crucial for improving the quality of life of residents and ensuring public well-being.

(ii) Community Development: Local councils facilitate community development projects, including the construction and maintenance of local infrastructure like roads, schools, and healthcare facilities. They work to address the specific needs of their communities and promote sustainable development.

(iii) Revenue Collection: Local government councils collect local taxes, fees, and levies to fund their operations and development projects. Efficient revenue collection is essential for financial sustainability and the provision of public services.

(vi) Policy Implementation: Local councils are responsible for implementing policies and regulations passed by higher levels of government. They ensure that national and state policies are adapted to local contexts and effectively executed at the grassroots level.

(v) Conflict Resolution: Local government councils mediate and resolve local disputes, providing accessible and effective mechanisms for conflict resolution. Their involvement helps maintain social harmony and prevent conflicts from escalating.

(vi) Education Support: Local councils manage and support primary and adult education, ensuring access to quality education for all residents. They work to improve educational facilities, recruit and train teachers, and promote literacy and lifelong learning.

(vii) Local Economic Development:
Local government councils foster economic development by creating an enabling environment for businesses to thrive. They provide incentives for investment, support entrepreneurship, and facilitate access to markets and financial services.

(viii) Public Participation: Local government councils encourage public participation in decision-making processes. They hold public meetings, solicit feedback from residents, and ensure that the voices of the community are heard and considered in governance

(ix) Environmental Protection: Local government councils are responsible for protecting the local environment. They implement policies and programs to conserve natural resources, promote sustainable practices, and address environmental issues such as pollution and deforestation

2 Response
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