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(Pick Any Two)

(i) public switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
(ii) Global system for mobile communication
(iii) satellite Telephone system
(iv) Fixed wireless Telephone system

(Pick Any one)

(i)satellite Telephone system: Satellite Telephone System: Satellite Telephone systems provide fixed, mobile and portable communications to the user. Satellite telephone systems are available for handheld, portable, fixed, mobile or marine use. The handheld devices are like a normal cell phone, but with a larger antenna. The portable systems are usually a suit-case style system that offers greater capabilities than the handheld system

(ii)Fixed Wireless Telephone System: Fixed wireless phones are designed to provide service in rural or underdeveloped areas, where portable, battery-powered handsets often perform poorly. Fixed wireless phones plug into standard AC outlets and resemble a conventional landline phone (fixed) but communicate over existing cellular networks (wireless). They are primarily designed for developing countries, but the phones are also ideal in offices, vacation resorts, and other cost-sensitive or remote locations.

(Pick Any Four)

(i)twisted-pair cable (ii)coaxial cable
(iii) fiber optic cable
(iv) Stripline

Word processing is the phrase used to describe using computer to create, edit and print documents. It is also the creation ,input , editing and production of a document with a computerized device. A word processing package enables you to type in and manipulate text.

(Pick Any Two)

(i) Microsoft word
(ii) word perfect
(iii) word star
(iv) word craft


(i) click the Microsoft office button and click Save or save As.
(ii) Press CTRL + s on the keyboard.


Graphic packages are those programs that allow artiste and computer users to use computers to create, edit, display and print graphic images. A graphics package is an application that can be used to create and manipulate images on a computer. Examples include Paint, Adobe Photoshop, Corel draw, CAD (computer aided design).

(Pick Any Two)

(i)Painting packages
(ii) Drawing packages
(iii) photo editing
(iv) Computer Aided Design (CAD)

(Pick any Two)

(i) Drawing straight lines and 'freehand' lines
(ii)Drawing regular pre defined shapes like squares, rectangles and circles using a special tool
(iii) Entering text and changing the style and size of font.
(iv)changing the size of an object or scaling

First normal form (1NF) sets the fundamental rules for database normalization and relates to a single table within a relational database system. In First Normal form ,some rules such as eliminate repeating information and create separate tables for related data are observed. Taking a students and courses database to the first normal form would means that you have to create two tables; one for students and one for courses.

Second normal form (2NF) is the second step in normalizing a database. 2NF builds on the first normal form (1NF).2NF attempts to reduce the amount of redundant data in a table by extracting it, placing it in new tables and creating relationships between those tables. In a 2NF compliant database structure , this redundant information like ZIP,City and state can be extracted and stored in a separate table.

Third normal form (3NF) is a database schema design approach for relational databases which uses normalizing principles to reduce the duplication of data, avoid data anomalies, ensure referential integrity, and simplify data management.The third normal form rule is that the non-key attributes should be independent. This normal form is violated when there exists a dependency among non-key attributes in the form of a transitive dependency


(Pick Any Four)

(i)Single user operating system
(ii) multi tasking operating system
(iii) Multi user operating system
(iv) Distributed operating system
(v) Batch processing operating system
(vi) Real time operating system

(Pick Any Two)

(i)First Come First Served(FCFS): first-come-first-served (FCFS) processes jobs in the order in which they are received. This is not a very fair policy, because a long-running job could be running, and other processes have to wait for it to finish. To the end-user, this could look like a system freeze or lock-up.

(ii)Shortest job next (SJN) scheduling: it is also also known as shortest job first (SJF) or shortest process next (SPN), is a scheduling strategy that selects for execution the waiting process with the smallest execution time. SJN is a non-preemptive algorithm. Shortest remaining time is a preemptive variant of SJN.

(iii)Priority scheduling: Priority scheduling is a non-preemptive algorithm and one of the most common scheduling algorithms in batch systems. Priority can be decided based on memory requirements, time requirements or any other resource requirement.

Data modeling is the process of creating a simplified diagram of a software system and the data elements it contains, using text and symbols to represent the data and how it flows. Data models provide a blueprint for designing a new database or reengineering a legacy application.

(i) conceptual data model
(ii) enterprise data model
(iii)logical data model
(iv) physical data model


(Pick Any Four)

(i) Fax machine
(ii) Telephone/mobile phone
(iii) Television
(iv) Radio
(v) Internet
(vi) Telegraph

(Pick Any Two)
(i) Telephone/mobile phone: Telephones and mobiles are most commonly used means of communication. They are not only very fast but also link far distant location within no time. Telephone are static whereas mobile phones can be carried anywhere. They help anyone to talk to others anytime and am from anywhere

(ii) Telegraph: A Telegraph is a Communication system in which information is transmitted over a wire through a series of electrical current pulses ,usually in the form of Morse code. The basic components include a source of direct current, a length of wire or cable , and a current indicating device such as a relay, buzzer it light bulb.

(iii) Internet: In modern age, internet is very cheap and reliable means of not only for communication but also useful for employment and education. Internet has brought the whole world to a very small workplace. We can surf for any information on internet. Search engines help to search that information within no time. E mail can also be used to send small or bulk of information to any part of the world

ARIS : Algorithms for Recovery and Isolation Exploiting Semantics

(Pick Any Two)

(i) Repeating history during Redo
(ii) Logging changes during undo
(iii) Write ahead logging

(i)REDO phrase: The redo phase restore the database to the exact state at the crash, including all the changes of uncommitted transaction that were running at the point in time.

(ii) UNDO phrase : The UNDO Phase undoes all uncommitted changes ,leaving the database in a consistent state. However, the changes of uncommitted transaction have to be undo to restore the database to a consistent state.




Hospitality is defined as the cordial and generous reception of a guest or stranger either socially or commercially OR Hospitality is the relationship process, presentation, formality and procedures experienced between a Visitor or customer or guest and a host.

Take away catering is defined as the service of providing meals or other food items, purchased at a restaurant or fast food outlet to consumers with the intent to be eaten elsewhere.

Tourism is defined as a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes. These people are called visitors (which may be either tourists or excursionists, residents or non-residents).

(i) Calories
(ii) Poor diet
(iii) Lack of physical activity
(iv) Genetics

(i) Dried fruit
(ii) Shellfish
(iii) Nuts
(iv) Chickpeas


(i) Refrigerator
(ii) Sink and draining board
(iii) Sandwich toaster
(iv) Bread slicing machine
(v) Worktop and cutting board
(vi) Storage cupboard
(vii) Coffee grinding machine
(viii) Crockery
(ix) Ice maker
(x) Glassware

(i) Good conduct: The conduct of the food and beverage staff is very important, especially in front of guests. Rude behavior towards guests or arguing will damage very quickly the reputation of the establishment that has been built over the years, Rules and regulations of the establishment must be followed and senior staff must be given due respect.

(ii) Punctuality: Food and beverage service staff should have respect for time. punctuality reflects the interest the staff has towards their work. If the staff does not report to duty on time on a regular basis. It shows a lack of interest in the job

(iii) Honesty: Food and beverage service personnel should be honest. it is of paramount importance as it reflects the character of a person. The service staff may be tempted to eat guest's food steal establishment's and guest's property, tell lies to his colleagues and guests, pass on vital information to a competitor, and so on. But it is important to remain honest in the face of such temptations.

(iv) Good memory: Good memory is an essential asset for service staff, They should be able to remember who has ordered what, who is sitting in which table number, which room number a guest is staying in, the likes and dislikes of guests, where they would like to sit, What type of food they prefer, what type of drinks they like, smoker or non-smoker, name of the guest, and so on. This will help the service staff satisfy the guests to a great extent.

(v) Sense of urgency: It is very important to increase seat turnover and revenue during business hours. slow service will lead to low seat turnover and lower revenue. The wait staff should be quick in getting food from the kitchen, serving dishes, presenting bills when completed, and re-lying cover for the next arrival. All these must be done quickly and effectively, without running around and shouting.

(v) Communication skills: Very good communication skills are necessary for service staff not only to suggest, explain, and serve the dishes to customers but also to have a good interpersonal relationship. It is always an added advantage to know the local language and any foreign language to interface effectively with guests. Taking to guests in their own language instead of just English is very effective and builds a good relationship.

(vi) Personal hygiene: This attribute of food and beverage staff is most important for the service staff as they are constantly handling food and beverage, and often go near the guests. No guests will patronize a restaurant if the food and drinks are handled by the staff who are unhygienic or with bad breath and body odor. The efforts gone into making good quality dishes will certainly not be appreciated by guests if served by staff with poor personal hygiene.


(i) Preheat the oven: Preheat the oven to 400°F for the cheesy toast toppers.

(ii) Cook the vegetables: In a large pot over medium heat, add the butter and onions. Cook until the onions turn translucent and season with a pinch of salt. Add the carrots, garlic, and dried thyme, stir together and cook for 30 seconds.

(iii) Add the stock and simmer: Add the stock and bring the mixture to a simmer. Cover and simmer for 15 more minutes until the carrots are very tender.

(iv) Make the cheesy toast dippers: Spread the baguette slices out on a baking sheet and drizzle them with olive oil. Then, sprinkle generously with finely grated parmesan cheese. Bake toasts at 400°F until edges are browned.

(v) Blend the soup: When the carrots are tender, use an immersion blender right in the pot to blend the soup until smooth.

(vi) Serve the soup: Ladle the soup into bowls and swirl about a tablespoon of heavy cream into each bowl. Garnish the soup with a sprinkle of paprika and fresh minced chives.


Portion Control is the procedure followed that defines the quantity to be utilized in preparing a dish and then serving it.

(i) It must be comfortable and made from a soft and comfortable material
(ii) It must protect employees from hazards
(iii) It must be durable and easy to clean:

(i) Cart Service
(ii) Room Service
(iii) Buffet Service
(iv) Self Service
(v) Cafeteria Service



51-60: AEAADAAE**

Tourism product is the combination of accommodation, food and beverage, transportation, entertainment, and many other goods and services that are used throughout the trip

(i) Accommodation. e.g apartment and Hotel
(ii) Amenities e.g water supply and electric supply.
(iii) Attraction. e.g beaches and national parks

(Pick Any Three)

Another characteristics of tourism product and services is that it is heterogeneous. In tourism, tourists make use of several services, including transport, hotels, restaurants, car rentals, and many types of indoor and outdoor recreational activities. However, what a tourist experiences at one place is not similar to the one experienced at another place

(ii)Customer participation: In the tourism industry, the customer by all means would have to partake in the delivery of the service being offered, otherwise, the service delivery would never be complete.In the industry, a product is being sold and a product is being consumed; there is no way this can happen without the customer getting involved.

(iii)No ownership: The ownership of a tourism product or services is not transferable to the consumer. The consumer only owns the right to use the product because he has paid for it for a predetermined period of time or days. If a tourist pays for a hotel room, he or she has the right to use the room for the days that he or she paid for.

(iv)Inseparability: Another characteristics of of tourism product and services is that it cannot be separated from the provider, that is, it is inseparable. If a tourist enters a restaurant and orders food or drink, the person who is bringing the food or drink cannot separate him or herself from the food or drink being brought to the customer.


(i)Porter ensures their customers' smooth and tireless stay while in various facilities like a hotel or cruise ship.
(ii)They are responsible for creating a warm and welcoming environment


(Pick Any Five)

(i)Alok Ikom Monoliths, Cross River
(ii)Ogbunike Caves, Anambra
(iii)Ancient Kano City Walls
(iv)Oke Idanre Hills, Ondo
(v)Osun-Osogbo Grove
(vi)Sukur Cultural Landscape, Adamawa

(i) Ogbunike cave and osun Oshogbo groove are both under UNESCO world heritage sites.
(ii)Both have streams and waters
(iii)They are both sacred place
(iv)They are both natural heritage

(i) It is a hilltop settlement which stood at an elevation of 1045 m.
(ii)The landscape is characterized by terraces on the farmlands, dry stone structures and stone paved walkways.
(iii)Sukur is an ancient settlement with a recorded history of iron smelting technology, flourishing trade, and strong political institution dating back to the 16th century.
(iv)The use of paved tracks and the spiritual content of the terraces, with their ritual features such as sacred trees.
(v)Sukur is an exceptional landscape that graphically illustrates a form of land-use that marks a critical stage in human settlement and its relationship with its environment.

(i)It brings international attention to the need for the preservation and conservation of the site.
(ii)It brings tourism to the site, with its accompanying economic benefits to the host country and local area.
(iii)It can provide funds for restoration, preservation, and training.
(iv)It promotes national and local pride in the natural and man-made wonders of the country.
(v)It promotes close ties with the United Nations system and the prestige and support it provides.
(vi)It provides access to global project management resources.



(i)Porter ensures their customers' smooth and tireless stay while in various facilities like a hotel or cruise ship.
(ii)They are responsible for creating a warm and welcoming environment


(i)waiter is to take orders from a customer and deliver the exact order to the customer
(ii)Waiters are a main source of help to tourists, especially when they are visiting a country or a restaurant for the first time.

Chloreographer :

(i)Choreographer creates original dance movements and routines for performances and productions.
(ii)They also develop different interpretations of existing dances for an individual dancer or group of dancers

(i)They both ensure safety of their customers and passenger
(ii) They play the role of welcoming their customers and passengers
(iii) They both ensure confont of their customers and passenger
(iv) They both provide necessary instructions and guidelines to their customers and passengers

(i)Financial support group.
Investors in the industry who do not have capital of their own, must of necessity go for facilities from the banks before they can travel

(ii)Transport facilities group
The service providers in this category are the airlines, the cruise ships, the bus operators, train companies, and car hiring companies

(iii)Health services
Any tourist on a tour journey can develop a problem with the tommy and need a first aid. This is why hospitals, clinics, and other levels of health facilities are important.

(iv)Security services
Tourists are targets for thieves and armed robbers so they need to be protected from such unscrupulous elements in the host country

(v)Accommodation and food:
The support group that takes care of this includes the hotels, hostels, Bread & Breakfast facilities, and restaurants, etc.


(i) Unique set of needs:
Niche market is represented by specialist needs among the audience, served by a few competitors.

(ii) Ample size:
The size of the niche market should be large enough to earn profits.

(iii) Sufficient purchasing ability:
While selecting a particular niche, the firm must lay emphasis on the purchasing ability of the target customers

(iv) Resources, competencies and skills:
Firm possesses the needed resources, competencies and skills, to exploit the niche.

(i) Your business is open around the clock.
(ii) You can maximize reservations
(iii) You get paid quicker

(i) You need Internet access
(ii) You need to be ready for an influx of new customers
(iii) Not all online E-reservation are created equal.

(i) Flashy magazines are always popular among consumers and are often read by them for a particular period of time in a month.
(ii) Print media is an easy medium to spread awareness or advertise to any particular geographical area.
(iii) Print media allows you to choose your own space for advertisement, thus, you can manage your budget and expenses while planning for the advertisement.

(i) Placing an advertisement in print media requires a lot of planning and time. In this case, you are faced with flexibility problem, particularly when you work in tight deadlines.
(ii) Besides, most of the time, your advertisement might get lost among all other ads and editorials
(iii) the lifespan of newspaper and magazines is very short as people have a tendency to throw them or keep them aside after one day of reading.

(i) Electronic media is fast.
(ii) This media is cost-effective hence manageable than the static media.
(iii) Electronic media allows easy management of global operations.
(iv) Electronic media is a perfect media of communication since these media allows the exchange of ideas instantly.


cottage industry is a small-scale, decentralized manufacturing business often operated out of a home rather than a purpose-built facility. Cottage industries are defined by the amount of investment required to start, as well as the number of people employed.

(Pick Any Four)

(vi) fuel wood

(Pick Any Four)

(i)National Directorate of Employment (NDE)
(ii)Small and Medium Enterprise Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN)
(iii)National Institute for Hospitality and Tourism (NIHOTOUR)
(iv)National Institute for Cultural Orientation (NICO)
(v)Ushafa Pottery Centre

(i)Small and medium enterprise Development Agency of Nigeria involves in Promoting and facilitating development programmes , instruments and support to accelerate the development modernization of ministry of Micro, small and medium Enterprises (MSME) operations.

(i)They initiate and articulate policy ideas for small and medium enterprises growth and development. Also have the mandate tmof stimulating, monitoring
They have the mandate and coordinating the development of Ministry of Micro ,small and Medium enterprise sub sector in nigeria

The Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) was established to facilitate the promotion and development of a structured and efficient Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) Sector that will enhance sustainable economic development in Nigeria. WHILE NICO is renowned for training cultural ambassadors, media practitioners, film directors and entrepreneurs to become more proficient at workplaces, homes and communities in their handling of Nigerian cultural realities, philosophy and practices which are relevant for economic advancements, National integration, peace and unity.




Service is any activity or benefit that are being an offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. Eg: Banking, transport, warehousing, Insurance communication etc.

(i) Intangible
(ii) Involvement of customers
(iii) Inseparability
(iv) Inventory
(v) Heterogeneous

(i) Intangible: An individual can only experience the services. These services cannot be seen or touched by individuals that’s why these are called intangible.

(ii) Involvement of customers: Customers are necessary to avail the services given by the service provider. For example, the communication sector or telecom sector provide services but to use these services customer has to receive the call. If customers will not take interest in the service then this sector can suffer loss.

(iii) Inseparability: Services cannot be separated from the service provider. In this case, the service provider gives services to its customers at the same time and place. For example, Lawyer, Chartered Accountant, Teacher, Doctor are service providers and their services are inseparable.

(iv) Inventory: Services are not stored like goods or material. These are perishable in nature. These services are given to the customers in present, not saved for the future. For example cinema tickets, bus tickets etc.

(v) Heterogeneous: Services are different according to the expectations of the customers. These services are also different in different sectors. For example public sector services and private sector services. These sectors perform their functions according to the rules and regulations set by the top authorities.


A contra entry is an entry that is recorded when both the debit and credit affect the same account and which results in a net-zero effect on the account. These transactions are recorded between bank and cash accounts

(i) straight-line
(ii) declining balance
(iii) double-declining balance
(iv) units of production
(v) sum-of-years digits.

(i) Donations
(ii) Subscriptions or Dues
(iii) Entrance fees
(iv) Fines
(v) Profits from bar
(vi) Investments
(vii) Income from raffle draws, animal fees, dinners etc.
(viii) Grants
(ix) Program Service revenue
(x) Fundraising campaigns









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