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An operating system is like the brain of a computer. It's a software that manages and controls the computer's hardware and software resources. It provides a user-friendly interface and allows you to run applications and perform tasks on your computer.

(i)Resource Management: The operating system manages the computer's hardware resources such as memory, CPU, disk space, and input/output devices.

(ii)Process Management: The operating system handles the execution of programs and processes.

A database management system (DBMS) is a software that helps organize, store, and manage large amounts of data. It provides a structured way to store and retrieve information, making it easier to organize and analyze data.

In decimal, 3F6 is equal to 1014.

Now, let's convert 1014 to base 8.

1014 divided by 8 is equal to 126 with a remainder of 6.

126 divided by 8 is equal to 15 with a remainder of 6.

15 divided by 8 is equal to 1 with a remainder of 7.

So, the base 8 representation of 3F6 in hexadecimal is 1766.


spreadsheet is a software application used primarily for organizing, manipulating, and analyzing data in a tabular format. It consists of rows and columns where users can input, store, and perform calculations on data. Each intersection of a row and column is called a cell and can contain text, numbers, formulas, or functions.


(a)Active Cell: The active cell in a spreadsheet refers to the currently selected cell where data entry, manipulation, or formatting actions take place. It's typically highlighted or bordered to indicate its selection within the spreadsheet. Users can navigate through cells to make any cell active by clicking or using keyboard commands.

(b)Cell range : cell range in a spreadsheet refers to a collection of two or more cells within a specific area of the spreadsheet. It's defined by specifying the starting cell and the ending cell of the range, usually denoted by their column letter and row number. Cell ranges are commonly used for applying formulas, performing calculations, or formatting multiple cells simultaneously. They allow users to perform operations on a group of cells collectively, streamlining data manipulation and analysis tasks in spreadsheets.

In a Tabular form

Soft copy output:
(i)nature: Digital or electronic representation of information
(ii)Accessibility: Accessed via electronic devices (computers, phones)
(iii)Storage and Portability: Easily stored in digital storage and portable
(iv)Alterability: Easily editable, altered, and updated

Hard Copy Output

(i)Nature: Physical, tangible representation on paper
(ii)Accessibility: Accessed by viewing or handling physical paper
(iii)Storage and Portability: Requires physical storage and less portable
(iv)Alterability: Generally static and not easily alterable


Internet is a global network of interconnected computers and devices that use standardized communication protocols to exchange data and information across vast geographical distances


(i)Internet exposes society to various cyber threats like hacking, identity theft, phishing, and malware, compromising personal data, financial security, and even national security.

(ii)The abundance of information available online can lead to information overload, making it challenging to discern credible sources from misinformation or fake news, potentially impacting decision-making and beliefs within society

(iii)Excessive use of the Internet, especially in social media platforms, can contribute to social isolation, reduced face-to-face interactions, and addiction, affecting mental health and interpersonal relationships negatively.

(v)Internet often collects and stores vast amounts of personal data, leading to privacy concerns regarding how this data is used, shared, and potentially exploited by various entities, leading to breaches in individual privacy and autonomy.

The first generation of computers emerged in the late 1930s and extended through the 1950s. These computers were characterized by their use of vacuum tube technology as the primary electronic component for processing data. They were massive machines that filled entire rooms, consumed a lot of power, and generated substantial heat.One of the earliest and most prominent examples of a first-generation computer is the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)

Dense: Dense index is a type of indexing method where every search key value in a file is associated with a record in the index. This means that the index contains an entry for every record in the file, making it relatively larger in size. Dense indexes facilitate faster search operations as they directly point to the location of the desired record. Each entry in the dense index consists of a key value and a pointer to the corresponding record.

Sparse: Sparse index is an indexing method where only some of the search key values are associated with the index entries. Instead of having an entry for every record, a sparse index includes entries for only selected key values at specific intervals or key points within the file. Each entry in the sparse index typically represents a range of records between two key values. Sparse indexes require less space compared to dense indexes


Information processing refers to the manipulation and transformation of data into meaningful information through various operations like input, processing, storage, and output, performed by a computer or a human being.

A single-user operating system is designed to be used by only one user at a time. It provides resources and services to that user, such as file management, task scheduling, and user interface.


A multiple-user operating system is designed to allow multiple users to access and use the system simultaneously. It provides resources and services to multiple users, including user management, access control, and resource sharing.

(i) Writing code: Programmers write instructions using programming languages to create software and applications.
(ii) Testing and debugging: Programmers test their code to identify and fix any errors or bugs before deploying the software.
(iii) Maintaining and updating: Programmers are responsible for maintaining and updating existing software to improve performance or add new features.
(iv) Collaborating and problem-solving: Programmers often work in teams, collaborating with other developers and using problem-solving skills to overcome challenges and create innovative solutions.

(i) 'Dropped' drop cap: This type of drop cap appears as a large capital letter at the beginning of a paragraph, with the rest of the text aligned beside it. It visually enhances the text and creates a decorative effect.
(ii) 'Indented' drop cap: This type of drop cap appears as a large capital letter at the beginning of a paragraph, with the following lines of text indented to make space for the drop cap. It is often used for stylistic purposes and can give a unique and visually appealing look to the document.

(i) Backspace key
(ii) Delete key

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