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Marketing OBJ

Marketing can be defined as the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer or users in order to satisfy consumers and accomplish the company's objectives.

(i) Consumer market: This consists of the Purchasers in the household who intend to consume or benefit from the purchased products and who do not buy the products for the main purpose of making profit.

(ii) Industrial market: This consists of individuals, groups or organizations that purchase a specific kind of product for direct use in producing other products or day to day operation.

(iii) Producer market: This consists of individuals or businesses that purchase products for the purpose of making profit by using them to produce other products. It can also be refer as businesses that make or create goods and services.

(iv) Government market: This consists of government units at federal, state and local levels. Agencies at all levels purchase goods and services used in performing critical government functions. Government are huge customers of all kinds of products.


Promotion is an element of marketing mix that consists of all communications efforts aimed at generating sales and building a favorable attitude for an organization and it's goods or services. It also refer as a process of informing customers of new product features and persuading them to buy the product.

(i) Personal selling
(ii) Public relations
(iii) Advertising
(iv) sales promotion

(i) Personal selling: Personal selling involves the direct personal contact of sellers with the potential buyers with view of making a sale. It can also be referred to as the face to face meeting of the sale men with the potential buyers in their houses, offices or market, e.g door to door selling.

(ii) Public relations: Public relations is another important aspect of promotion. This is a deliberate but sustained effort by a firm to establish a good image for the organization in the eye of its numerous public and by so doing create goodwill and favorable trading(business) environment for the company and its products or services.

(iii) Advertising: Advertising can be defined as any paid form of non personal communication which is directed to the consumers or target audience through various media in order to present and promote products, services and ideas. Advertising informs, educates and persuade people to buy the advertised goods and serves.

(iv) sales promotion: Sales promotion can be defined as any activity that is used to stimulate sales of a product. It is a special promotion technique designed to exchange brand patronage. Sales promotion may be directed at consumers in the form of consumer promotion or to middlemen as trade promotion. It usually lasts for a period of time.


Consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use and dispose of products, services, experience or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.

(i) Problem recognition
(ii) Information search
(iii) Purchase decision
(iv) Evaluation of Alternative

(i) Problem recognition : This can also be called awareness of need. Need is the most important factor which leads to buying of products and services. Need infact is the catalyst which triggers the buying decision of individual. The marketer must recognize the needs of the consumer as well as how these needs can be satisfied

(ii) Information search: In consumer buying decision process, information search comes second. In this stage, consumer searches the information about the product either from family, friends neighborhood, advertisements, whole seller, retailers, dealers or by examining or using the product. A successful information search leaves a buyer with possible alternatives.

(iii) Purchase decision: The purchase of a product or service is the fourth step in the consumer buying process. At this point, the consumer has considered all the factors relating to the product, and has shopped around for the best deal or option. Consumer have typically made up their minds about what they want to spend and where to spend it.

(iv) Evaluation of Alternative : This is where consumer start cutting down the possible options by comparing it with their criteria and what they want from the product /service. They evaluate the various alternatives available in the market. An individual after gathering relevant information tries to choose the best option available as per his need, taste and pocket.


(i) Achieving a Target Return on Investments
(ii) Price Stability
(iii) Achieving Market Share
(iv) Prevention of Competition

(i) Ability to pay
(ii) Competition
(iii) Profit maximization
(iv) Cost of Production

(i) Ability to pay : This is one of the basic factor that determine the price of a product. This is the ability of a consumer to pay for a particular product or service. It is an important factor that organization must put into consideration before setting the price of a product or services.

(ii) Competition: If there is a strong competition in a market, a consumer are faced with a wide choice of who to buy from. They may buy the cheapest provider or perhaps from the one which offers the best customer service. But customer will certainly be mindful of what is a reasonable or normal price in the market

(iii) Profit maximization: Maximising profits is said to be the objective of all firms. Managing of an organization should also not forget that they need to make profit from selling a product which is the main reason why the organization is set up

(iv) Cost of Production: Cost of production is the main component of price. No company can sell its product or services at less than the cost of production. Thus, before price fixation, it is necessary to compile data relating to the cost of production and keep that in mind.


In marketing, Transportation has to do with the movement of products from a source such as a plant, factory or workshop to a destination such as a warehouse, customer, or retails shore. Transportation helps in conveying raw materials from one place to another. Raw materials are generated at one place before they are transported to another place where they are processed or used to manufacture goods. Transportation also helps in mass production by distributing finished goods to various destinations.

(i) Low maintenance cost: The cost of maintaining motor vehicle is low compared to ships or aeroplane
(ii) Flexible :There is high degree of flexibility since there is no fixed time schedule

(i) Slow on long distance :it is slow when long distance is involved
(ii) Prone to accident:Road transport is too prone to accident than other means of transportation.

(i) Nature of goods
(ii) Cost of transport
(iii) Type of Transportation available in the area:

(i) nature of goods: The nature of the goods to be transported will determine the means of transportation to be used. Perishable and fragile goods for example, are better handled by fast means of transportation like aircraft while bulky goods are better handled by ship or rail

(ii) Cost of transport: The overall cost of transport does determine the choice of means of transportation of goods. Air transport is costly while rail is cheap over a long distance and this will determine the choice of either of the two to use.

(iii) Type of Transportation available in the area: The choice of transport can also be determined by the type of transportation available in the area. In the riverine area eg Niger Delta in Nigeria, the best means of transportation is through water




Database management system involves the process of creating, monitoring, administration and maintenance of the databases and database group in an organization. It also entails managing the speed and efficiency with which a database supplies answers to end user queries

(i) weight
(ii) costs
(iii) prices
(iv) numbers of items sold
(v) employees name

Field: A field contains an items of data that is, a character or group of characters that are related. For instance, a grouping of related text characters such as 'John smith' makes up a name. In the filed. Field could be name, address, city, telephone etc

(ii) Record: A record is composed of a group of related field. A record contains a collection of attitudes related to an entity such as a person or product. A payroll record would contain the name, address, social security number and title of each employee

(iii) Primary key: primary key is a specific choice of a minimal set of attributes (columns) that uniquely specify a tuple (row) in a relation (table). Informally, a primary key is "which attributes identify a record", and in simple cases are simply a single attribute: a unique ID. Social security numbers are often used as key in large database


Transitions in presentation package are the signposts that help the audience navigate their way through your presentation. They can help divide information up into sub-sections, link different aspects of your talk and show progression through your topic.

(i)Great analytical skills.
(ii)Paying attention to details.
(iii)Commitment to work and self-development.
(iv)Communication skills on point.

Collation information: This includes gathering, arranging, and annotating related information; drawing tentative conclusions about the relationship of "facts" to each other and their significance; evaluating the accuracy and reliability of each item; grouping items into logical categories; critically examining the information source.

Analysis of information; is a process of collecting, transforming, cleaning, and modeling data with the goal of discovering the required information. The results so obtained are communicated, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making.





(i)it is used to prevent fraud
(ii)It is used yo detect missing figures
(iii)It saves time,money and labour
(iv)It is used to ascertain the debtors and creditors balance
(v)It is used to locate errors easily

Long term liability; these are debt which become due for settlement after more than one year. While Current liability: these are debt due for settlement within one year

(ii)fixed asset: these are long lasting asset which are used for the purpose production while Current Assets: these are held for a short period of time for running the affairs of business

(iii)Intangible Asset: these are asset that cannot be seen nor touch e.g Goodwill Fictitious Assets: these are asset of unusual character and are not realisable .eg preliminary expenses


(i)Sales day book: these are books used for recording items sold on credit
(ii)purchase day book: these are books used for recording items bought on credit
(iii)return inward: these are books used for recording items returned by a customer for one reason or the other
(iv)return outward journal: these are books used for recording items returned to supplier for one reason or the other
(v)cash book; this used for recording items that involves immediate payment

(i)Personal Account: this is a ledger account that deals with persons, corporate entities with whom the business has transaction E.g union bank PLC Debtors account

(ii)Impersonal Account: this is a ledger account that deals with Assets, liabilities, incomes and expenditure eg Real Account: Buildings Nominal Account: Expenses

(i)Loan from financial institutions
(ii)plough back profit
(iii)trade credit
(iv)capital contributed by all partners
(v)Admission of a new partner




(i) Afan National Festival.
(ii) Agila Social and Economic Carnival.
(iii) Annang Festival of Art and Culture.
(iv) Argungu Fishing Festival.

(i) Nok culture of Kaduna state
(ii) Dye Pits of kano state
(iii) Esie stone sculptures
(iv) Mbari Art of Imo state

(i) Social influence: The influence of modernization, Christianity, commerce, civilization, change, development, looting, and antiquarians, among others.

(ii) Developmental projects: The government developmental projects which destroy cultural heritages, conflicts and social change in Nigeria as a whole.

(iii) Social change: The Social change implies an alteration, modification or shift in behavior also cause the challenge in cultural heritage.

(iv) Religious fanaticism: The religious zealots who burn cultural objects in the name of deliverance.


Tour operator is an organization, firm, or company who buys individual travel components, separately from their suppliers and combines them into a package tour, which is sold with their own price tag to the public directly or through middlemen.

(Choose Any three)
(i) Planning a Tour:The most important functions of the tour operators are planning a tour. Tour operators plan a tour and make tour itinerary which contains the identification of the origin, destination and all the stopping point in a traveler’s tours.

(ii) Making Tour Package:
Tour operator buys individual travel components, separately from there suppliers and combines them into a package tour. Tour operators make tour package by assembling various travel components into a final product that is called tour package which is sold to tourist with own price tag.

(iii)Arranging a Tour:
Tour operators make tour package and also arrange a tour according to tourist demands. Tour operators arrange the tour package and various tourists activities to provide the best experience to tourists/traveler.

(iv) Travel information: A tour operator must give up-to-date, accurate and timely information regarding destinations, modes of travel, accommodation, sightseeing, immigration, health and security rules about various permits required to travel in a particular area etc.

(i) Booking: One of the most important duties of a travel agent is booking accommodations, car rentals, flights, cruises, trains, buses and tours. They have access to direct inventory for many accommodations and travel arrangements, giving you options that you may have missed by searching for yourself online.

(ii)Customer Service: Customer service is an important duty of a travel agent. Not only will travel agents book your trip and tell you about where you are going, but they will plan every detail from the time that you leave your home until the time you return.

(iii)Knowledge: Travel agents are required to have a broad knowledge of the world, especially popular travel destinations. When you are planning a leisure vacation, a travel agent can suggest locations that fit your travel wants and needs.


Tourism marketing is the collective name given to the various marketing strategies used by businesses within the tourism industry to promote the business, make it stand out from rivals, attract customers, and generate brand awareness.

(Choose Any three)
(i)Build a compelling and memorable visual brand.
(ii)Build a collaborative local network of suppliers.
(iii) Design powerful customer experiences.
(iv)Drive website traffic.
(v) Power-up your tourism content marketing campaign.

(i) Print media: Print media advertising uses media which are printed in sending out its messages about the product or service being advertised to prospective customers, present consumers and other businesses which may be interested in the product or service offered.

(iii) Publications: Publications cover all means of making marketing messages on tourism potential and attraction available to the general public as well as to those who are specially targeted by the marketing that particular message.

(iii) Magazines: Magazines allow marketers to reach readers in different market segments. This makes it easy for tourism marketers to place adverts in magazines to attract persons with specific interest, for example placing an advert on golfing in magazines patronized my middle-upper income earners.

(iv) Newspapers: Those who wish to advertise in the newspapers are able to select from a broad range of newspapers. Advertisers of tourist events and venues can buy different classes of space from small size text only adverts to larger spaces with pictures and illustration of tourist centers and events, even up to full pages where one’s budget allows.


(i) Act as the apex body to provide leadership and direction for the private sector travel, hospitality and recreation Associations/businesses.
(ii) Co-ordinate, promote and protect the interest of its members in the tourism sector of the nation’s economy and in particular the interests of its members.
(iii) Liaise, interact and work in concert with the government (Federal, States, and Local Government Areas) and its agencies in order to guarantee the timely and effective development of tourism resources in Nigeria.
(iv) Establish operating standards and ethics that will enhance credibility of the profession and encourage its acceptability.
(v) Promote domestic and international tourism activities within the Federal Republic of Nigeria in particular and the rest of the world, in general.

(i) To encourage people living in Nigeria to take their holidays therein and people from abroad to visit Nigeria
(ii) To encourage the provision and improvement of tourism amenities and facilities
in Nigeria including the development of hotels and ancillary facilities.
(iii) To provide advisory and information services
(iv) To promote and undertake research in the field of tourism;
(v) To render technical advice to the states and local governments in the field of tourism

(Choose Any Five)
(i) Nigeria Hotels Association (NHA)
(ii) Federation of Tourism Association of Nigeria (FTAN)
(iii) National Association of Tour Operators( NATOP)
(iv) Hospitality and Tourism Management
(v)Association of Nigeria (HATMAN)
(vi) National Association of Nigeria Travel Agencies (NANTA)

(i) Negative perception of Nigeria abroad.
(ii) Lack of infrastructure at most tourism site.
(iii) Multiple taxation
(iv) insecurity
(v) Poor Management and Administration



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