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(i) The roads are motorable
(ii) The roads are connected in the Central point of the mapped area
(iii) The roads are easily accessible
(iv) The roads are on highland area of the mapped area

(Pick Any Three)
(i) It is accessible by main road
(ii) It has four schools, church and market
(iii) It has railway linking it
(iv) It is located close to the sea


(Pick Any THREE)
(i) Caves
(ii) Stumps
(iii) Cliffs
(iv) Arches
(v) Stacks
(vi) Headlands

Hydraulic action: The wearing down of cliff or headland through the impact produced by the sheer force of the waves against obstacles along the coast. In other words the sheer force of water crashing against the coastline causing material to be dislodged and carried away by the sea. And the Compression occurs in rocky areas when air enters into crack in rock.

Corrasion: The wearing down of the base of cliff or headland using the impact of the materials carried along by waves. In other words the strictly mechanical wear of bedrock by moving detrital and other materials during their migration downslope under the influence of gravity, and their further transportation by erosional agencies such as running water, moving ice, or wind.


(i) Mechanically formed sedimentary rocks
(ii) Organically formed sedimentary rocks
(iii) Chemically formed sedimentary rocks

granite = gneiss
Clay = Slate
Shale = schist
Limestone = Marble

(Pick Any Four)
(i) Resistance: Metamorphic rocks are generally more resistant than most sedimentary rocks
(ii) Lustres: Metamorphic rocks are crystalline while sedimentary rocks are non-crystalline
(iii) Permeability: Sedimentary rocks are more permeable while Metamorphic rocks are more impervious.
(iv) Mineralogy: Metamorphic rocks contain non-ferrous minerals while sedimentary rocks contain hydrocarbons
(v) Fossils: The fossils in Metamorphic rocks have been destroyed by heat and pressure while sedimentary rocks have beautiful fossils


Environmental balance refers to the ways of recycling matter and the flow of energy within an ecosystem in order to ensure continuous supply or availability. Environmental balance is achieved through water cycle,carbon cycle,mineral nutrient cycle,nitrogen cycle,food chain and web


(Pick Any THREE)
(i) Water helps to dissolves plant nutrients solutions for easy absorption by plant
(ii) All living organisms requires water for normal life processes
(iii) Water is an important agent for weathering of rocks
(iv) Water is also required by plants for photosynthesis and transpiration by plants aids Cooling of the plants



Geography OBJ



Settlement is a collection of building with people living in them. It is centre for human activities and it consists of houses ,communication ,networks, roads,tracks and railways. For it to be a settlement, features like buildings and people living together must be there.

(Pick Any TWO)
(i) Metropolis
(ii) Conurbation
(iii) City

(Pick Any Five)
(i) Provision of food: Urban areas depend on rural areas for foodstuffs like Yam,plantain,beans and cassava

(ii) Unskilled labour supply: Unskilled labour are usually from rural to urban industries.

(iii) Medicinal herbs: Medicinal herbs and roots are usually brought from rural to urban areas for use by individuals or pharmaceutical companies.

(iv) Industrial raw materials: Raw materials like cocoa, rubber and cotton for industries are supplied from rural areas to the industries in the urban areas.

(v) Provision of Houses: Rural or village supplies housing for urban dwellers eg Ibusa for Asaba.

(vi) Provision of Market: Village always provides market for industrial goods.

(Pick any THREE)
(i) Industrial function: Owing to the presence of industries ,urban centres are involved in the manufacturing of finished goods

(ii) Commercial function: The presence of markets and banks enables urban dwellers to engage in commercial activities

(iii) Administrative function: Most urban centres are the seats of government eg state capitals and local government. Hence,the need to perform administrative jobs.
(iv) Socio-cultural function: Urban settlement are centres for the establishment of universities ,polytechnics,schools ,churches ,mosques and hotel.

(v) Residential function: Owing to large concentration of people in urban settlement, the need therefore arises to build residential houses to cope with the ever-increasing population.


Tourism is the practice of travelling for pleasure or the business of offering information,accommodations,transportation and other services to tourists. In order words,tourism is the practice which involves the visiting of people to places of interest where they can relax,derive pleasure and entertainment.

(Pick Any Five)
(i) Favourable climate: For tourism to strive, the climate of the environment must be favourable so that tourists can relax and enjoy themselves.
(ii)Fine beaches: In Nigeria, there exist beautiful beaches along the coast. Such beautiful beaches include the Bar beach, Lekki and Badagry beaches.
(iii) Wild life: In Nigeria, there also exist beautiful wide life or game reserves such as Yankari and Borgu Game Reserves.
(iv) Effective publicity: For tourism to strive in Nigeria, there must be enough publicity to create awareness for the tourists on possible areas of attraction.
(v) Beautiful scenery: For tourism to grow, there must be natural and man made scenery where people can relax and entertain themselves.
(vi) Good transport network or communication: There must be good transportation system who will promote the movement of tourists without any obstructions. Vehicles and good roads are key to good tourism.

(Pick Any Four)
(i)Inadequate funding: In Nigeria, the tourism industry is poorly funded. Poor funding has led to the poor development of the sub-sector.
(ii) Lack of access roads: In Nigeria, there is basically lack of access roads to most resort centres. Many of the roads are in bad shape and this tends not to attract tourists to such centres.
(iii) Poor publicity: Lack of effective publicity or communication system for publicizing the scenery, wildlife and cultural attractions to visitors is a big problem in the country.
(iv) Inadequate personnel: One of the problems of developing tourism attractions in Nigeria is the inadequacy of competent and trained tourism personnel. Very few personnel are trained and competent.
(v) lack of private investment: In Nigeria, tourism development are left in the hand of government. Government alone cannot develop tourism in Nigeria.
(vi) Inadequate infrastructure: Basic infrastructure like electricity, pipe-borne water etc are inadequate and in some areas are lacking and this tends to reduce the development of tourism in Nigeria.




(i) Lagos
(ii) Kano
(iii) Kaduna
(iv) Port Harcourt

(i) Lagos: Food manufacturing industries
(ii) Kano: Textile industries
(iii) Kaduna: Textile industries
(iv) Port Harcourt: Fishing industries

(Pick Any Three)

(i)Increase in Gross National Product (GNP): Industrial sector through their operations like payment of taxes increases the earnings accruing to the nation.

(ii)Employment opportunities: Industries provide employment (jobs) for many people.

(iii)International trade improves trade balance: Most of the products of manufacturing industries like machinery are usually from western nations. This forms the basis for international trade and improves trade balance between countries.

(iv)Stimulation of other sectors: Industrial sector does stimulate the growth of other sectors like agriculture, mining and lumbering.

(v)Control of inflation due to mass production: With modern technology. products like cars and machinery can be mass-produced. This can help to reduce inflation.

(Pick Any Three)

(i)Shortage of raw materials: Lack of sufficient raw materials available to industries hinders large scale production.

(ii)Insufficient capital: Access to finance or loan is very difficult. Capital (i.e. loan) is only easy for the big time investors, who possess collateral securities, to secure.

(iii)High degree of foreign dependence: Most products made in Africa are of low quality when compared with their counterparts in developed countries. Hence, people rely or depend on foreign goods.

(iv)Poor quality of industrial labour: Africa has a large pool of illiterate population that provides the personnel for our industries.

(v)Low purchasing power of the populace: Large scale poverty in African countries makes people have low purchasing power.

(vi)Inadequate power supply: There are frequent disruption of power supply in industrial areas and many areas do not even have power supply.

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